Papst Benedikt XVI

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Papst Benedikt XVI (lateinisch: Benedictus XVI; Italienisch: Benedetto XVI; Deutsch: Benedikt XVI, geboren Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger, deutsche Aussprache: [joːzɛf alɔʏzi̯ʊs ʁatsɪŋɐ]; geboren Sechzehn April 1927) diente als Papst von 2005 außer seinem Rücktritt im Jahr 2013 Benedikts Die Wahl erfolgte im Rahmen des päpstlichen Konklave von 2005, der den Tod von Papst Johannes Paul II. Seit seinem Rücktritt hält Benedict den Titel Papst Emeritus.

Als Priester im Jahre 1951 in seinem Heimatland Bayern gegründet, etablierte sich Ratzinger 1957 als äußerst populärer Hochschullehrer und wurde 1958 zum stabilen Professor ernannt. Nach einem anhaltenden Beruf als Tutorial und Professor für Theologie an mehreren deutschen Universitäten, Wurde 1977 zum Erzbischof von München und Freising und Kardinal von Papst Paul VI. Ernannt, eine fremde Förderung für jemanden mit wenig pastoraler Erfahrung. 1981 wurde er zum Präfekten der Kongregation für die Glaubenslehre ernannt, einer der größten Dikasterien der römischen Kurie. Ab 2002 mit Ausnahme seiner Wahl als Papst wurde er auch Dekan der Fakultät der Kardinäle. Früher als in Papst verwandeln, wurde er „eine grundlegende Entscheidung über die Vatikanischen Bühne für ein Vierteljahrhundert“; Er hatte einen Affekt „2. zu keinem, wenn es darum ging, kirchliche Prioritäten und Anweisungen zu setzen“ als einer unter den engsten Vertrauten von Johannes Paul II. [2]

Er wurde am Anfang eines liberaler Theologen, aber angenommen konservative Ansichten nach 1968 [3] Seiner produktivste [4] Schriften abgenutzte katholische Lehre und Werte schützen. Für die Zeit seines Papsttums befürwortete Benedikt XVI. Eine Rückkehr zu den elementaren christlichen Werten, um der verstärkten Säkularisierung vieler westlicher Länder entgegenzuwirken. Er sieht die Verweigerung der Zielwahrheit des Relativismus und die Verleugnung der schönen Wahrheiten vor allem, weil das zentrale Feld des 21. Jahrhunderts. Er lehrte die Wichtigkeit von jeder und jeder der katholischen Kirche und eine Vorstellung von Gottes erlösenden Phantasie. [5] Papst Benedikt wieder auch eine Auswahl an Traditionen, einschließlich der tridentinischen Messe zu einem prominenteren affirm erhebend. [6] Er die Verbindung zwischen der katholischen Kirche gestärkt und Kunst, förderte die Verwendung von Latein, [7] und abgenutzte päpstliche Gewänder wieder eingeführt, weshalb er als „der Papst der Ästhetik“ bekannt wurde. [8] Er wurde als „der bedeutenden geistigen Antrieb innerhalb der Kirche“ seit Mitte der 1980er Jahre beschrieben. [9]

Am 11. Februar 2013 startete Benedict seinen Rücktritt in einer lateinischen Rede vor den Kardinälen und zitierte einen „Mangel an Selbstdisziplin und Körper“, der aus seinem vorangegangenen Alter resultierte. Sein Rücktritt wuchs, um sich am 28. Februar 2013 als fantastisch zu erweisen. Er ist der erste Papst, der seit Papst Gregor XII. Im Jahre 1415 zurücktreten wird, und der erste, der sich so erhebt, als er mit der Initiative seit Papst Celestine V im Jahre 1294 wahrgenommen hat Papst emeritus, behält Benedikt die Art von seiner Heiligkeit, und dem Titel des Papstes, und weiter in der päpstlichen Färbung der weißen zu Kostüm. Er wurde von Papst Francis am 13. März 2013 erfolgreich ist, und er zog in das neu renovierte Kloster Mater Ecclesiae für seinen Ruhestand auf 2 könnte außerdem 2013 seinen Ruhestand, Benedikt XVI gelegentliche öffentliche Auftritte neben Franziskus hat.

Formative Jahre: 1927-1951

Die Geburtswohnung von Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger in Marktl, Bayern

Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger wurde am sechzehn April, heiligen Samstag, 1927, in der Schulstraße 11, um acht Uhr morgens in seinem von uns wohnen in Marktl, Bayern, Deutschland geboren. Er wurde getauft den identischen Tag. Er ist der null.33 und jüngste Kleine unter Joseph Ratzinger, Sr., ein Polizeibeamter und Maria Ratzinger (geb. Peintner); Sein Groß-Onkel wurde zum deutschen Baby-Kusser Georg Ratzinger. Der Haus seiner Mutter wurde am Anfang aus Südtirol (jetzt in Italien). [10] Papst Benedikt älterer Bruder, Georg Ratzinger, ist ein katholischer Priester und ist der veraltete Leiter des Chores Regensburger Domspatzen. Seine Schwester, Maria Ratzinger, die niemals verheiratet war, führte Kardinal Ratzingers Haushalt mit Ausnahme ihres Todes im Jahre 1991.

Im Alter von 5 Jahren wurde Ratzinger in einer Nachbarschaft von Kindern, die den Besuch des Kardinals Erzbischof von München mit Blumen begrüßt haben. Von dem unverwechselbaren Gewand des Kardinals getroffen, startete er später an diesem Tag, dass er ein Kardinal sein wollte. Er besuchte die Grundschule in Aschau am Inn, die im Jahr 2009 in seiner Ehre umbenannt wurde [11]

Ratzingers Haushalt, besonders sein Vater, bitterlich die Nazis verärgert, und die Opposition seines Vaters gegen den Nationalsozialismus führte zu Demotionen und Belästigung des Haushaltes. [12] im Jahr 1941 seinen 14. Geburtstag Folgen, wurde Ratzinger in die Hitler Prägende eingezogen Jahre als Mitgliedschaft durch die Gesetzgebung für alle 14-yr-veraltete deutsche Jungen nach März 1939 erforderlich wurde [13] wurde -aber ein unenthusiastic Mitglied, weigerte sich zurück Treffen im Schritt mit seinem Bruder. [14] Im Jahr 1941 ein unter Ratzingers Cousins, einen 14-yr-veraltet Jungen mit Down – Syndrom, wurde durch das NS – Regime weggenommen und für den Zeitraum der Aktion T4 Kampagne der NS – Eugenik ermordet. [15] Im Jahr 1943, während ruhig im Seminar, wurde er in das deutschen anti-Flugzeug Korps als Luftwaffenhelfer eingezogen. [14] Ratzinger dann innerhalb der deutschen Infanterie ausgebildet. [16] Da die alliierte Front näher rückt seinen im Jahr 1945 vorlegen, er verließ , um seinen Haushalts der Wohnung in Traunstein zu fördern , nachdem seine Einheit zu existieren aufgehört hatte zu etabliertem tatsächlichen als amerikanischen Truppen einen Sitz im Haushalt Ratzinger. [17] Als deutscher Soldaten, wurde er in einem Gefangenenlager interniert Schlacht, sondern ein Paar Monate später auf der Ruine der Schlacht in Might startete ferner 1945. [17]

Ratzinger und sein Bruder Georg traten St. Michael Seminary in Traunstein im November 1945 später auf dem Ducal Georgianum (Herzog Georgianum) der Ludwig-Maximilian – Universität in München studiert. Sie wurden in Freising am 29. Juni 1951 von Kardinal Michael von Faulhaber von München ordiniert. Ratzinger erinnerte sich: „In dem Augenblick, als der alte Erzbischof mir die Finger legte, flog ein kleiner Hahn – vielleicht eine Lerche – aus dem Altar in der übertriebenen Kathedrale und trat eine ganz freudige Melodie auf.“ [18]

Ratzingers 1953 Dissertation wurde auf St. Augustine und wurde von uns und dem Condominium Gottes in Augustins Lehre von der Kirche betitelt. Seine Habilitation (die ihn für eine Professur lizenzierte) wurde auf Bonaventura. Es wurde 1957 durchgeführt und er wurde 1958 zum Professor der Freising Fakultät.

Pre-päpstlicher Beruf

Tutorial Beruf: 1951-1977

Stück einer Kette auf der
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046CupolaSPietro.jpg Katholizismus-Portal

Ratzinger wuchs 1959 zum Professor an der Universität Bonn, sein Eröffnungsvortrag wurde auf „Der Gott des Glaubens und der Gott der Philosophie“. 1963 wechselte er zur Universität Münster. Für den Zeitraum dieser Zeit nahm er innerhalb des 2. Vatikanischen Konzils (1962-sechzig 5) und diente als peritus (theologische Handbuch) an Kardinal Frings von Köln. Er wurde für die Zeit des Rates als Reformator betrachtet und arbeitete mit Theologen wie Hans Küng und Edward Schillebeeckx zusammen. Ratzinger wuchs zu einem Verehrer von Karl Rahner, einem renommierten Tutorial Theologen der Nouvelle Théologie und einem Befürworter der Kirchenreform.

1966 wurde Ratzinger zum Lehrstuhl für dogmatische Theologie an der Universität Tübingen ernannt, der er zum Kollegen von Hans Küng wurde. In seinem 1968 e Buch Einführung in das Christentum, schrieb er , dass der Papst eine Verantwortung in der Kirche nach vorn unterschiedliche Stimmen zur Herstellung einer Auflösung hat zu hören, und er verharmlost die zentrale Bedeutung des Papsttums. Für die Zeit dieser Zeit distanzierte er sich von dem Ambiente von Tübingen und den marxistischen Neigungen der Studentenbewegung der Sechziger, die in den Jahren 1967 und 1968 schnell radikalisierten, in einer Kette von Störungen und Unruhen im April gipfelte und weiter 1968. Ratzinger kam mehr und mehr, um diese und damit verbundene Neigungen (wie die Verringerung der Bewunderung für die Autorität unter seinen Schülern) zu sehen, wie sie mit einer Abkehr von abgenutzten katholischen Lehren verbunden waren. [19] Trotz seines reformistischen Zick – Zack, seine Ansichten mehr und mehr kamen mit den liberalen Ideen zu Unterschied Forex Kreise in theologischen gewinnen. [20]

Einige Stimmen, unter ihnen Küng, flüstern, dass dies ein Flip in Richtung Konservatismus ist, während Ratzinger selbst in einem Interview von 1993 anerkannt hat: „Ich erkenne keinen Schaden in meinen Ansichten als Theologe [über die Jahre]“. [21] Ratzinger setzte die Arbeit des 2. Vatikanischen Konzils zu schützen, einschließlich Nostra aetate, doc auf admire alternativer Religionen, die Ökumene und die Erklärung der tatsächlichen zur Freiheit des Glaubens. Später, weil der Präfekt der Kongregation für die Glaubenslehre, Ratzinger am deutlichsten der katholischen Kirche affirm auf andere Religionen innerhalb des 2000 doc Dominus Iesus , die auch in „ökumenischen Dialog“ über die römisch – katholische System zu rauben spricht buchstabiert. Für die Zeit seiner Zeit an der Universität Tübingen, veröffentlichte Ratzinger Artikel innerhalb der reformistischen theologischen Zeitschrift Concilium, selbst wenn er mehr und mehr ausgewählt weniger reform Themen als andere Mitwirkenden zum Magazin wie Küng und Schillebeeckx.

Im Jahr 1969 kehrte er nach Bayern, an der Universität Regensburg und Mitbegründer die theologische Zeitschrift Communio, mit Hans Americavon Balthasar, Henri de Lubac, Walter Kasper und anderen, 1972 Communio, jetzt in siebzehn Sprachen veröffentlicht, darunter Deutsch, Englisch und Spanisch, hat sich herausgestellt, um eine prominente Zeitschrift der neuen katholischen theologischen Idee zu sein. Es sei denn, seine Wahl als Papst, blieb er einer unter den Zeitschriften die meisten produktiven Mitwirkenden. Im Jahr 1976, er schnell, dass die Augsburger Beichte vielleicht vielleicht besser als eine katholische Beobachtung des Glaubens anerkannt werden könnte. [22][23] Ein paar von Benedikts veraltet Studenten wuchs seine Vertrauten entpuppen, insbesondere Christoph Schönborn und eine Auswahl seiner veralteten Studenten in den meisten Fällen für Diskussionen treffen. [24][25] Er diente als Vizepräsident der Universität Regensburg von 1976 bis 1977. [26]

Erzbischof von München und Freising: 1977-1982

Palais Holnstein in München, bestätige Benedikt als Erzbischof von München und Freising

Am 24. März 1977 wurde Ratzinger zum Erzbischof von München und Freising ernannt. Er nahm als sein Bischofsmotto Cooperatores Veritatis (Mitarbeiter der Wahrheit) von drei John acht, eine Präferenz er auf in seinem autobiographischen Werk kommentiert, Meilensteine. Innerhalb des Konsistoriums des nächsten 27. Juni wurde er von Papst Paul VI. Zum Kardinalpriester von Santa Maria Consolatrice al Tiburtino ernannt. Zur Zeit des Konkurrenten 2005 wurde er einer von insgesamt 14 endgültigen Kardinälen, die von Paul VI. Ernannt wurden, und einer von ganz drei von ihnen unter dem Alter von 80 Jahren. Von diesen, ganz er und William Wakefield Baum nahm Segment innerhalb des Konklave. [28]

Präfekt der heiligen Kongregation für die Glaubenslehre: 1981-2005

Kardinal Ratzinger in Rom, 12. Oktober 1988.

Am 25. November 1981, Papst Johannes Paul II., Nach dem Ruhestand von Franjo Šeper, rief Ratzinger, weil der Präfekt der heiligen Kongregation für die Glaubenslehre, vorher bekannt, weil die „heilige Kongregation des Heiligen Amtes“, die historische römische Inquisition . Infolgedessen hat er seine Einreichung in München Anfang 1982 zurückgetreten. Er wurde in der Fakultät der Kardinäle gefördert, um sich als Kardinal Bischof von Velletri-Segni im Jahr 1993 zu werden und wurde 1998 zum Vizepremier des Studenten und Dekan im Jahr 2002. genaue ein Jahr nach ihrer Gründung im Jahr 1990 Joseph Kardinal Ratzinger Mitglied der Europäischen Akademie der Wissenschaften und Künste in Salzburg / Österreich 1991 [29][30]

Ratzinger verteidigte und bekräftigte die katholische Lehre, einschließlich der Unterweisung über Themen wie Geburtsverwaltung, Homosexualität und inter-nicht-säkularen Dialog. Der Theologe Leonardo Boff, als ein Beispiel, wurde suspendiert, während andere wie Matthew Fox wurden zensiert. Andere Bedenken haben auch Verurteilungen oder Widerruf von Rechten an Trainer ausgelöst: Als Illustration waren einige posthume Schriften des Jesuitenpriesters Anthony de Mello das Feld einer Benachrichtigung. Ratzinger und die Gemeinde als viele von ihnen, vor allem die späteren Arbeiten, als Bestandteil von nicht säkularen Indifferentismus (dh, Christus wurde „ein Griff neben anderen“). Insbesondere durch die Gemeinde im Jubiläums Jahr 2000 viele jetzt bestätigt jetzt nicht zu verlängern vor „unbeliebt“ Ideen, einschließlich der katholischen Kirche affirm veröffentlicht Dominus Iesus, dass „ Das Heil in keinem anderen gefunden wird, für werde es nicht sein Jeder andere Titel unter dem Himmel, der den Menschen gegeben ist, in denen wir gerettet werden sollten. „ Die Akte verärgert viele protestantische Kirchen, indem sie behaupten, dass sie jetzt jetzt nicht unzweifelhaft Kirchen, sondern „kirchliche Gemeinschaften“ erscheinen. [31]

Ratzingers 2001 Brief De delictis gravioribus klärte die Vertraulichkeit der inneren Kirche Untersuchungen, wie Sollicitationis innerhalb der 1962 doc Crimen definiert, in Anschuldigungen gegen Mönche von klaren Verbrechen, einschließlich des sexuellen Missbrauchs. Dies wuchs, um sich als ein Feld der Kontroverse für die Periode des Intercourse-Missbrauchs Skandal. [32] Seit 20 Jahren hatte Ratzinger die Person in der Verwaltung der Auferlegung der doc gewesen. [33] Die Bischöfe erreichen die Geheimhaltung vollständig intern betraf, und tat nun nicht jetzt Untersuchung von Zivilgesetzgebung Durchsetzung auszuschließen, wurde der Brief in der Regel als Verkauf einen coverup betrachtet. [34] Später, als Papst, wurde er in einer Klage der Verschwörung beschuldigt die Belästigungen von drei Jungen in Texas steppen, sondern suchte und diplomatische Immunität von der Haftung erhalten. [35]

Am 12. März 1983 Ratzinger als Präfekt, teilte die Laien und die Geistlichkeit , den Erzbischof Pierre Martin Ngo Dinh Thuc Exkommunikation Tatstrafe für illegale Bischofsweihen mit aus dem apostolischen Auftrag entstanden war. Im Jahr 1997, als er 70 wurde, forderte Ratzinger Papst Johannes Paul II. Für die Erlaubnis auf, die Kongregation der Glaubenslehre wegzuziehen und sich als Archivist innerhalb des Vatikanischen Geheimarchivs und eines Bibliothekars in der Vatikanischen Bibliothek zu erweisen, aber Papst Johannes Paulus verweigerte seine Zustimmung. [36][37]

Papsttum: 2005-2013

Papst Benedikt XVI. Auf dem Petersplatz

Papst Benedikt XVI., St. Peter-Basilika, 15 Möglicherweise weiter 2005

Papst Benedikt XVI. Rezitiert das wöchentliche Angelusgebet mit Blick auf den Petersplatz, Vatikanstadt

Wahl zum Papsttum

Benedikt XVI. Wurde zum 265. Papst im Alter von siebzig Jahren gewählt. Er ist die älteste Person, die seit Papst Clemens XII. (1730-vierzig) zum Papst gewählt worden ist. Er diente länger als Kardinal vor dem Papst als jeder Papst seit Benedikt XIII. (1724-30). Benedikt und sein polnischer Vorgänger Johannes Paul II. Waren die ersten aufeinanderfolgenden nicht-italienischen Päpste seit den sieben aufeinander folgenden Franzosen des Avignon-Papsttums (1309 – siebzig). Der letzte Papst Benedikt wurde Benedikt XV., Ein Italiener, der von 1914 bis 1922 für die Zeit der Weltschlacht I (1914-18) regierte.

Am 2. Januar 2005 zitierte Time Magazin ungenannte Quellen im Vatikan , wie zu behaupten , dass Ratzinger ein Spitzenreiter wurde Johannes Paul II zu triumphieren sollte er sterben oder sie als zu krank zu sein als Papst fortzusetzen. Nach dem Tod von Johannes Paul II gab die Financial Times die Chancen Ratzinger Drehen in Papst als 7-1, die Führung affirm, aber seine Rivalen auf der liberalen Fliege der Kirche schließen. Im April 2005 vorwärts von seiner Wahl zum Papst, wurde er als einer unter den hundert einflussreichsten Menschen auf dem Planeten von Zeit identifiziert. [38] Während der Präfekt der Kongregation für die Glaubenslehre, Ratzinger Zeit und sagte wieder würde er sich entscheiden, seine Wohnung im bayerischen Dorf Pentling schließen nach Regensburg und widmete sich dem Schreiben Bücher in den Ruhestand.

Im Konklave, „wurde es, wenn jetzt jetzt nicht Ratzinger, wer? Und wie sie ihn kennengelernt haben, wuchsen die Akte von wach, um zu sein, warum jetzt jetzt nicht Ratzinger?“ [39][40] Am 19. April 2005 ist er nach vier Stimmzettel am 2. Tag gewählt wurde. [39] Kardinal Cormac Murphy-O’Connor beschrieb die Schlussabstimmung : „Es ist ganz feierlich im Fall , dass Sie eine nach der anderen Trab bis Ihre Stimme in die Urne zu legen und Sie versuchen , auf den übrigen Urteil des Michelangelo auf. Und Ich leise, den Kardinal Ratzinger, der auf dem Umkreis seines Stuhls sitzt. [41] Ratzinger hatte gehofft , friedlich in den Ruhestand und räumte ein, dass „An einem klaren Punkt, ich zu Gott gebetet‚Bitte bilde nun jetzt nicht erheben aus mir dies‘… Offenbar, diesmal hat er jetzt nicht Ticket zu mir nehmen. „ [42] Früher als sein erster Blick auf dem Balkon des Petersdom, wurde er von Jorge Medina Estévez, Kardinal Protodeacon der katholischen Kirche ins Leben gerufen. Kardinal Medina Estévez adressiert zuerst die massive Menge als „teuer (est) Brüder und Schwestern“ in Italienisch, Spanisch, Französisch, Deutsch und Englisch, mit jedem Sprachaufnahme prost vom internationalen Publikum, vorwärts konstant mit der getragen Habemus Papam Ankündigung in Latein.

Auf dem Balkon, Benedikts erste Sätze auf den Körper der Arbeiter, in Italienisch vorwärts er angesichts der abgenutzten Urbi et Orbi Segen auf Latein gab, waren:

Liebe Brüder und Schwestern, nach dem bergigen Papst Johannes Paul II. Haben die Kardinäle mich, einen geradlinigen, demütigen Arbeiter im Weingut des Herrn, gewählt. Die unbestreitbare Wahrheit, die der Herr bewusst ist von der Art zu arbeiten und sich mit unzureichenden Instrumenten zu verhalten, tröstet mich, und vor allem vertraue ich mich auf Ihre Gebete an. Innerhalb des Genusses des auferstandenen Herrn, der von seiner unerschütterlichen Menge überzeugt ist, lasst uns vorwärts wechseln. Der Herr wird uns fressen, und Maria, seine Allerheiligste Mutter, wird auf unserem Aspekt sein. Vielen Dank. [43]

Am 24. April bekannte er die päpstliche Einweihungsmesse auf dem Petersplatz erfolgreich, für die Zeit, in der er mit dem Pallium und dem Ring des Fischer angelegt wurde. Auf 7 weiter konnte er seine Domkirche, die Archbasilica von St. John Lateran, besetzen.

Wahl des Titels

Ratzinger wählte den päpstlichen Titel Benedikt aus der lateinischen Notiz, dass die Methodik „der Gesegnete“ zu Ehren von jedem Papst Benedikt XV. Und dem heiligen Benedikt von Nursia. Papst Benedikt XV. Wurde Papst für die Zeit der ersten Weltschlacht, für die Zeit, in der er leidenschaftlich den Frieden zwischen den kriegsführenden Ländern verfolgte. St. Benedikt von Nursia wurde der Gründungsvater der Benediktinerklöster ( die meisten Klöster des Herzens Alter der Benediktiner waren aussetzen) und dem Verfasser der Regel des heiligen Benedikt, die im Wesentlichen die einflussreichste Schrift über die Mönchsleben der westlichen ruhig Christentum. Der Papst erklärte seine Vorliebe für den Zeitraum seiner ersten langjährigen Zielgruppe am Petersplatz am 27. April 2005:

Gefüllt mit Gefühl von Angst und Danksagung, beschließe ich mich darauf zu konzentrieren, warum ich den Titel Benedict ausgewählt habe. Erstens und bedeutsam, ich bedenke Papst Benedikt XV., Jener unerschütterliche Prophet des Friedens, der die Kirche durch turbulente Schlachtfälle führte. In seinen Fußstapfen bejahle ich meinen Dienst in dem Versorger der Versöhnung und des Teamgeistes zwischen den Völkern. Außerdem erobere ich den heiligen Benedikt von Nursia, den Mitschützer Europas, dessen Leben die christlichen Wurzeln Europas inspiriert. Ich baue beiseite, um ihn zu bitten, uns zu bitten, uns alle zu versorgen, um uns auf die Zentralität Christi in unserem christlichen Leben zu kümmern: Möglicherweise wird Christus immer wieder in unseren Gedanken und Handlungen zuerst behaupten! [44]

Ton des Papsttums

Papst Benedikt XVI. Der erste Ausflug in einem Popemobil

Für die Zeit seiner Eröffnungsmesse wurde die alte Person, die von jedem Kardinal, der sich dem Papst unterwarf, mit zwölf Völkern, darunter Kardinälen, Klerus, nicht säkularen, einem Ehepaar und ihrem Kleinen und neu bestätigten Völkern, . (Die Kardinäle hatten ihren Gehorsam bei seiner Wahl offiziell geschworen.) Er begann die Verwendung eines Launch-Puppenwagens und behauptete, dass er den Leuten näher kommen wollte. Papst Benedikt setzte den Brauch seines Vorgängers Johannes Paul II. Fort und taufte mehrere Säuglinge in der Sixtinischen Kapelle zu Beginn von jedem andern, in seinem pastoralen Unpartei als Bischof von Rom.

Seligsprechungen

Auf 9 Might weiter 2005 begann Benedikt XVI. Den Seligsprechungsprozess für seinen Vorgänger, Papst Johannes Paul II. Am häufigsten sollten 5 Jahre nach dem Tod einer Person vor dem Seligsprechungsprozess eintreten. Auf der anderen Seite, in einer Zielgruppe mit Papst Benedikt, Camillo Ruini, Vikar Total der Diözese von Rom und der seriöse verantwortlich für den Verkauf der Distanz für die Kanonisierung von jedem, der in dieser Diözese stirbt, zitiert „unverwechselbaren Fällen“, die Schnell, dass die fertige Zeit verzichtet wird. Dies bestätigte sich, als Papst Paul VI. Auf die 5-Jährige Regel verzichtete und auf seine Vorgänger, Papst Pius XII. Und Papst Johannes XXIII., Seligsprechungsprozesse startete. Benedikt XVI. Nahm diesen Präzedenzfall an, als er auf die 5-Jährige Regel für Johannes Paul II. Verzichtete. [45] Die Resolution wurden am 13. gestarteten Might außerdem 2005 das Fest der Mädchen von Fátima und der vierundzwanzigsten Jahrestag des Attentats auf Papst Johannes Paul II Leben. [46] Johannes Paul II gutgeschrieben in der Regel Unsere Mädchen von Fátima für ihn an diesem Tag zu erhalten. Cardinal Ruini eröffnete das diözesanen Segment der Ferne für Seligsprechung innerhalb der Lateran am 28. Juni 2005. [47]

Die erste Seligsprechung unter dem frischen Papst wurde auf 14 weiter bekannt, 2005 von José Kardinal Saraiva Martins, Kardinalpräfekt der Kongregation für die Ursachen der Heiligen. Die frischen Blessed waren Mom Marianne Cope und Mom Ascensión Nicol Goñi. Kardinal Clemens August Graf von Galen wurde am 9. Oktober 2005 selig gesprochen. Mariano de la Mata wurde im November 2006 selig gesprochen und Rosa Eluvathingal wurde am 13. Dezember dieses Schatzes und Pfr. Basil Moreau wurde September 2007 selig gesprochen [48] Im Oktober 2008 wurden die nächsten Seligsprechungen nahm affirm: Celestine der Mutter Gottes, Giuseppina Nicoli, Hendrina Stenmanns, Maria Rosa Flesch, Marta Anna Wiecka, Michael Sopocko, Petrus Kibe Kasui und 187 Gefährten, Susana Paz-Castillo Ramírez und Maria Isbael Salvat Romero.

Am 19. September 2010, für den Zeitraum von ihm suchen die Ratschläge von mit dem Vereinigten Königreich, Benedict persönlich verkündet die Seligsprechung von John Henry Newman. [49]

Im Gegensatz zu seinem Vorgänger, Benedikt XVI delegiert die Seligsprechung liturgischen Anbieter zu einem Kardinal. Am 29. September 2005 veröffentlichte die Kongregation für die Ursachen der Heiligen ein Kommuniqué, das ankündigte, dass nunmehr Beatifikationen durch ein Handbuch des Papstes, auf dem ganzen Präfekten dieser Kongregation, erfolgreich bekannt sein können. [50]

Kanonisierungen

Papst Benedikt auf die Heiligsprechung von Frei Galvão

Papst Benedikt XVI. Bekannte seine ersten Kanonisationen am 23. Oktober 2005 auf dem Petersplatz, als er Josef Bilczewski, Alberto Hurtado SJ, Zygmunt Gorazdowski, Gaetano Catanoso und Felice da Nicosia kanonisierte. Die Kanonisierungen waren das Segment einer Messe, die den Abschluss des Gesamtsitzes der Bischofssynode und des Jahres der Eucharistie markierte. [51] Papst Benedict XVI kanonisiert Bischof Rafael Guizar y Valencia, Mom Theodore Guerin, Filippo Smaldone und Rosa Venerini am 15. Oktober 2006 eingetragen .

Für den Zeitraum von ihm sucht der Rat von mit nach Brasilien im Jahr 2007, Papst Benedikt XVI. Vorsitz über die Heiligsprechung von Frei Galvão auf 11 Might weiter, während George Preca, Gründung Vater der Malta-basierte meist überwiegend MUSEUM, Szymon von Lipnica, Charles von Mount Argus und Marie-Eugénie de Jésus in einer Zeremonie am Vatikan auf drei Juni 2007. [52] Preca ist die erste Malteser saint da das Land die Bekehrung zum Christentum in 60 AD , als St. Paul umgestaltet die Bewohner gehalten heilig gesprochen wurden. [53] Im Oktober 2008 die nächsten Heiligsprechungen bestätigen nahmen Saint Alphonsa von Indien, [54] Gaetano Errico, Narcisa de Jesus Martillo Moran und Bernarda Bütler. Im April 2009 heulte er Arcangelo Tadini, Bernardo Tolomei, Nuno Álvares Pereira, Geltrude Comensoli und Caterina Volpicelli. [55] Im Oktober des gleichen yr er Jeanne Jugan kanonisiert, Jozef Damian de Veuster, Zygmunt Szczęsny Feliński, Coll Guitart und Francisco Rafael Arnáiz Barón. [56][57]

Am 17. Oktober 2010 kenne Papst Benedikt André Bessette, einen französisch-kanadischen; Stanislaw Soltys, ein polnischer Priester aus dem 15. Jahrhundert; Italienische Nonnen Giulia Salzano und Camilla Battista da Varano; Spanische Nonne Candida Maria de Jesus Cipitria und Barriola und die erste australische Heilige, Mama Mary MacKillop. [58] Am 23. Oktober 2011 heilig gesprochen Papst Benedict XVI drei Heiligen: eine spanische Nonne Bonifacia Rodríguez Castro, Italienisch Erzbischof Guido Maria Conforti und italienischen Priester Luigi Guanella. [59] Im Dezember 2011 offiziell Papst Benedikt die Gültigkeit der Wunder grundlegenden identifiziert mit den Heiligsprechungen von Kateri Tekakwitha gehen, der die ersten Native American Heiliger sein kann, Marianne Cope, eine Nonne arbeitet mit Aussätzigen in dem, was ist jetzt die affirm von Hawaii , Giovanni Battista Piamarta, ein italienischer Priester, Jacques Berthieu, ein französischer Jesuitenpriester und afrikanischer Märtyrer, Carmen Salles y Barangueras, eine spanische Nonne und Gründungsvater der Schwestern der Unbefleckten Empfehlung, Peter Calungsod, ein Laienkatechist und Märtyrer aus den Philippinen, Und Anna Schäffer, deren Wunsch, Missionar zu werden, wurde auf Garn ihrer Krankheit nicht erfüllt. [60] Sie wurden am 21. Oktober 2012 heilig gesprochen [61]

Ärzte der Kirche

Am 7. Oktober 2012 nannte Papst Benedikt XVI. Hildegard von Bingen und Johannes von Avila Ärzte der Kirche, die dreißig vierundvierzigsten und fünfundvierzig Menschen, die im historischen Vorgeschichte des Christentums erkannt wurden. [62]

Curia-Reform

Papst Benedikt machte völlig bescheidene Anpassungen an den Bau der römischen Kurie. Im März 2006 stellte er jeden Päpstlichen Rat für die Seelsorge von Migranten und Wanderleuten und den Päpstlichen Rat für Gerechtigkeit und Frieden unter einem einzigen Präsidenten, Kardinal Renato Martino, auf. Als Martino im Jahr 2009 in den Ruhestand ging, erhielten die Räte jeden und jeden wieder mit dem Vorsitzenden so gut wie möglich. Auch im März 2006 wurde der Päpstliche Rat für den interreligiösen Dialog vorübergehend in den Päpstlichen Rat für Tradition unter Kardinal Paul Poupard verschmolzen. Diese Räte behaupteten ihre getrennten Offiziere und Stäbe, während ihre Zwangslage und ihre Kompetenzen unverändert blieben, und in der Gegenwart 2007 wurde der interreligiöse Dialog wieder in seine getrennte Situation wiederhergestellt, wobei er mit dem Präsidenten wahrgenommen wurde. [63] Im Juni 2010 erstellt Benedikt den Päpstlichen Rat für die Förderung des Unique Evangelisation, Erzbischof Rino Fisichella seinen ersten Präsidenten zu ernennen. [64] Am Sixteen Januar 2013 Papst Benedikt die Zuständigkeit für die Katechese von der Kongregation für den Klerus an dem Päpstlichen Rat für die einzigartigen Evangelisation Förderung. [65]

Lehren

Als Papst, wurden zu einem unter Benedikt XVI Hauptrollen über den katholischen Glauben zu coachen und der Auswahl für die Anliegen der anspruchsvollen und lebendigen Glauben, [66] , um ein unparteiischen , dass er vielleicht vielleicht auch erfolgreich als veraltet Leiter der Kongregation der Kirche spielen würde Für die Doktrin des Glaubens. Die kritischen Elemente der Betonung seiner Lehren werden in der Theologie von Papst Benedikt XVI.

„Freundschaft mit Jesus Christus“

Am Ende seiner ersten Predigt als Papst verwies Benedikt auf jeden Jesus Christus und Johannes Paul II. Zitieren Sie die berühmten Phrasen von Johannes Paul II. „Führen Sie jetzt jetzt nicht schüchtern!“ Bald die Türen für Christus! „, Sagte Benedikt XVI.

Sind wir jetzt jetzt nicht alle schüchtern in irgendeinem System? Wenn wir Christus vollkommen in unser Leben eintreten lassen, wenn wir uns ganz auf ihn stellen wollen, sind wir jetzt jetzt nicht schüchtern, dass er vielleicht vielleicht eine Sache von uns wegnehmen würde … Und sobald wieder der Papst anerkannt hat: Nein Nein Wenn wir Christus in unser Leben hineinlassen, verlieren wir nichts, nichts, ganz nichts von dem, was das Leben frei macht, hübsch und bergig. Nein! Am schönsten auf dieser Freundschaft werden wir Schönheit und Befreiung erleben … Nachdem wir uns Ihm gegeben haben, finden wir hundertfach im Gegenzug. Bestimmte, starten, starten Sie die Türen zu Christus – und Sie würden das sachliche Leben sichern. [67]

„Freundschaft mit Jesus Christus“ ist ein häufiges Thema seiner Predigt. [68][69] Er unter Druck gesetzt , dass auf dieser innigen Freundschaft, „alle Stücke abhängen.“ [70] Er bestätigte auch: „Wir sind alle so bekannt sind , sie mit Gott zu dieser Freundschaft starten … mit ihm zu reden als zu einem Chum, der ganz Einen, der das Reich jeden tatsächlichen und kitzelte entstehen kann … Das ist Alles, was wir erheben sollten, ist uns zur Verfügung gestellt, um uns selbst zur Verfügung zu stellen … ist eine besonders grundlegende Botschaft, es ist eine Botschaft, die hilft, zu erobern, was als die bergige Versuchung unserer Zeit betrachtet wird: die Behauptung, dass nach dem Sizable Bang, Gott zog sich aus der Vergangenheit zurück. „ [71] So wird in seinem e Buch Jesus von Nazareth, sein Hauptgrund wurde „Vorschub zu leisten Pflege [in den Leser] das Zischen einer lebendigen Beziehung“ mit Jesus Christus. [70]

Er nahm dieses Thema in seiner ersten Enzyklika Deus caritas est up. In seiner innersten Rationalisierung und Zusammenfassung der Enzyklika sagte er: „Wenn die Freundschaft mit Gott für uns eine Sache grundsätzlich und entscheidend wird, dann werden wir die Möglichkeit haben, diese zu fragen, die Gott liebt und wer ist Wir wollen uns, dass wir Kumpel sein wollen, und wir werden die Möglichkeit haben, so zu sein, wenn wir ihnen innerlich schließen. „ [72] So erkannte er , dass das Gebet ist „dringend notwendig … Es ist Zeit, die Bedeutung des Gebets in der sichts des Aktivismus und der steigenden Säkularismus vieler Christen in der karitativen Arbeit beschäftigter zu bekräftigen.“

„Diktatur des Relativismus“

Ausdauernd mit dem, was er erkannte in der Pre-Konklave Masse über das, was er in der Regel oft bekannt als der „zentrale Bereich unseres Glaubens gegenwärtig“, [73] am 6. Juni 2005 Papst Benedikt auch bestätigt:

In letzter Zeit ist ein außerordentlich heimtückisches Hindernis für die Zuweisung von Bildung die massive Präsenz in unserer Gesellschaft und Kultur jenes Relativismus, die nichts als endgültig erkennt, weil das letzte Kriterium ganz das Selbst mit seinen Bedürfnissen ist. And below the semblance of freedom it turns into a detention heart for each and one and all, for it separates folks from one one more, locking each and one and all into his or her accept as true with ego. [74]

He acknowledged that „a dictatorship of relativism“ [75] became the core field facing the church and humanity. At the foundation of this field, he acknowledged, is Kant’s „self-limitation of reason“. This, he acknowledged, is contradictory to the favored acclamation of science whose excellence is in step with the energy of reason to know the truth. He acknowledged that this self-amputation of reason ends in pathologies of faith such as terrorism and pathologies of science such as ecological failures. [76] Benedict traced the failed revolutions and violent ideologies of the twentieth century to a conversion of partial elements of secure out about into absolute guides. He acknowledged „Absolutizing what’s now now not absolute but relative known as totalitarianism.“ [77]

In an handle to a conference of the Diocese of Rome held on the basilica of St. John Lateran 6 June 2005, Benedict remarked on the concerns with identical intercourse marriage and abortion:

The a gigantic assortment of forms of the dissolution of matrimony at present, like free unions, trial marriages and going as much as pseudo-matrimonies by folks of the identical intercourse, are quite expressions of an anarchic freedom that wrongly passes for factual freedom of man…from right here it turns into your entire more clear how contrary it’s to human fancy, to the profound vocation of man and lady, to systematically conclude their union to the reward of life, and even worse to suppress or tamper with the life that is born. [78]

Christianity as faith in step with reason

Within the dialogue with secularism and rationalism, one amongst Benedict’s overall ideas will be found in his handle on the „Crisis of Tradition“ within the West, a day forward of Pope John Paul II died, when he referred to Christianity because the Faith of the Emblems (the Greek for „note“, „reason“, „that methodology“, or „intelligence“). He acknowledged:

From the beginning, Christianity has understood itself because the faith of the Emblems , because the faith in step with reason… It has constantly defined men, all men with out distinction, as creatures and photos of God, proclaiming for them…the identical dignity. In this connection, the Enlightenment is of Christian origin and it’s no accident that it became born precisely and completely within the realm of the Christian faith….It became and is the merit of the Enlightenment to have again proposed these long-established values of Christianity and of getting given encourage to reason its accept as true with disclose… As of late, this wants to be precisely [Christianity’s] philosophical power, in to this point because the field is whether or now now not or now now not the realm comes from the irrational, and reason is now now not as an alternative of a ’sub-product,‘ infrequently even unhealthy of its construction—or whether or now now not the realm comes from reason, and is, as a final consequence, its criterion and goal…Within the so fundamental dialogue between secularists and Catholics, we Christians ought to be very cautious to remain faithful to this elementary line: to are living a faith that comes from the Emblems , from inventive reason, and that, thanks to this, is also launch to all that is indubitably rational. [79]

Benedict also emphasised that „Greatest inventive reason, which within the crucified God is manifested as fancy, can indubitably show us the kind.“ [79]

Encyclicals

Pope Benedict wrote three encyclicals: Deus caritas est (Latin for „God is Tackle“), Spe Salvi („Saved by Hope“), and Caritas in veritate („Tackle in Truth“). In his first encyclical, Deus caritas est , he acknowledged that a human being, created within the image of God who is fancy, is able to have a study fancy: to present himself to God and others (agape), by receiving and experiencing God’s fancy in contemplation. This life of fancy, in step with him, is the life of the saints such as Teresa of Calcutta and the Blessed Virgin Mary, and is the route Christians take after they think that God loves them in Jesus Christ. [80]

The encyclical contains almost Sixteen,000 phrases in forty two paragraphs. The first half is presupposed to have been written by Benedict in German, his first language, within the summer of 2005; the 2nd half is derived from uncompleted writings left by his predecessor, Pope John Paul II. [81] The doc became signed by Pope Benedict on Christmas Day, 25 December 2005. [82] The encyclical became promulgated a month later in Latin and became translated into English, French, German, Italian, Polish, Portuguese and Spanish. It is the first encyclical to be published since the Vatican determined to tell copyright within the reputable writings of the pope. [83]

Benedict’s 2nd encyclical titled Spe Salvi („Saved by Hope“), about the virtue of hope, became launched on 30 November 2007. [84][85] His zero.33 encyclical titled Caritas in veritate („Tackle in Truth“ or „Charity in Truth“), became signed on 29 June 2009 (the Feast of Sts. Peter and Paul) and launched on 7 July 2009. [86] In it, the Pope continued the Church’s teachings on social justice. He condemned the prevalent economic gadget „the put the pernicious effects of sin are evident,“ and known as on folks to rediscover ethics in industry and economic kinfolk. [86]

At the time of his resignation, Benedict had carried out a draft of a fourth encyclical entitled Lumen fidei („The Light of Faith“), [87] supposed to accompany his first two encyclicals to total a trilogy on the three theological virtues of faith, hope, and fancy. Benedict’s successor, Pope Francis, carried out and published Lumen Fidei in June 2013, four months after Benedict’s retirement and Francis‘ succession. Though the encyclical is officially the work of Pope Francis, paragraph 7 of the encyclical explicitly expresses Francis‘ debt to Benedict: „These concerns on faith — in continuity with all that the Church’s magisterium has pronounced on this theological virtue — are intended to complement what Benedict XVI had written in his encyclical letters on charity and hope. He himself had almost carried out a fundamental draft of an encyclical on faith. For this I am deeply grateful to him, and as his brother in Christ I indubitably have taken up his comely work and added a pair of contributions of my accept as true with.“ [88]

Submit-synodal apostolic exhortation

Sacramentum caritatis (The Sacrament of Charity), signed 22 February 2007, became launched in Latin, Italian, English, French, German, Portuguese, Spanish and Polish. It became made on hand in varied languages 13 March 2007 in Rome. The English edition from Libera Editrice Vaticana is 158 pages. This apostolic exhortation „seeks to soak up the richness and diversity of the reflections and suggestions which emerged from the Frequent Total Meeting of the Synod of Bishops“ which became held in 2006. [89]

Pope Benedict and Master of Pontifical Liturgical Celebrations Msgr. Guido Marini at a Mass in October 2008

Motu proprio on Tridentine Mass

A pre-1969 Oldschool Latin Mass altar with reredos.
The excessive altar of a church became on the entire preceded by three steps, below which were acknowledged the Prayers on the Foot of the Altar. Facet altars on the entire had entirely one step.

On 7 July 2007, Benedict XVI issued the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum , declaring that upon „the seek files from of the faithful“, birthday celebration of Mass in step with the Missal of 1962 (usually known because the Tridentine Mass), became to be more with out misfortune accredited. Bag teams who beforehand had to petition their bishop to have a Tridentine Mass would maybe perchance well now merely seek files from permission from their native priest. [90] Whereas Summorum Pontificum directs that pastors ought to present the Tridentine Mass upon the requests of the faithful, it also enables for any licensed priest to present inner most celebrations of the Tridentine Mass, to which the faithful would maybe perchance very successfully be admitted within the event that they need. [91] For continually scheduled public celebrations of the Tridentine Mass, the permission of the priest in administration of the church is required. [92]

In an accompanying letter, the Pope outlined his affirm regarding questions about the fresh pointers. [91] As there have been fears that the switch would entail a reversal of the 2nd Vatican Council, [93] Benedict emphasised that the Tridentine Mass would now now not detract from the Council, and that the Mass of Paul VI would quiet be the norm and monks were now now not accredited to refuse to tell the Mass in that produce. He identified that expend of Tridentine Mass „became never juridically abrogated and, which ability that, in idea, became constantly accredited.“ [91] The letter also decried „deformations of the liturgy … because in many areas celebrations were now now not faithful to the prescriptions of the fresh Missal“ because the 2nd Vatican Council became wrongly considered „as authorising or even requiring creativity“, declaring his accept as true with experience. [91]

The Pope considered that allowing the Tridentine Mass to those that seek files from it became a methodology to ruin or heal schism, declaring that, on occasions in historical previous, „now now not ample became accomplished by the Church’s leaders to take care of or gain reconciliation and team spirit“ and that this „imposes an duty on us at present: to originate each and every effort to permit for all these that indubitably desire team spirit to remain in that team spirit or to achieve it anew.“ [91] Many indubitably feel the decree aimed at ending the schism between the Holy Glimpse and traditionalist teams such because the Society of Saint Pius X (SSPX). Cardinal Darío Castrillón Hoyos, the president of the Pontifical Commission established for the explanation of facilitating stout ecclesial communion of these associated with that Society, [94] said that the decree „opened the door for their return“. Bishop Bernard Fellay, good long-established of the SSPX, expressed „deep gratitude to the Sovereign Pontiff for this mountainous religious assist“. [90]

Unicity and salvific universality of the Catholic Church

Shut to the ruin of June 2007, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued a doc licensed by Benedict XVI „because some new theological interpretations of Vatican II’s ecumenical intent had been ‚untrue or ambiguous‘ and had triggered confusion and doubt.“ [95] The doc has been considered as restating „key sections of a 2000 text the pope wrote when he became prefect of the congregation, Dominus Iesus .“ [95]

Consumerism

Benedict XVI condemned excessive consumerism, especially among early life. He said in December 2007 that „[A]dolescents, youths and even children are straight forward victims of the corruption of fancy, deceived by unscrupulous adults who, lying to themselves and to them, contrivance them into the needless-ruin streets of consumerism.“ [96] In June 2009, he blamed outsourcing for greater availability of user goods which lead to downsizing of social security methods. [97]

Ecumenical efforts

Speaking at his weekly target audience in St Peter’s Square on 7 June 2006, Pope Benedict asserted that Jesus himself had entrusted the leadership of the Church to his apostle Peter. „Peter’s responsibility thus includes guaranteeing the communion with Christ,“ acknowledged Pope Benedict. „Let us pray so that the primacy of Peter, entrusted to dreadful human beings, would maybe perchance well constantly be exercised on this long-established sense desired by the Lord, so that this is also more and more recognised in its factual that methodology by brothers who’re quiet now now not in communion with us.“

Other Christian denominations

Also in 2006, Benedict met Rowan Williams, Archbishop of Canterbury and non secular head of the Anglican Communion. Of their Total Declaration, they highlighted the old forty years of dialogue between Catholics and Anglicans while also acknowledging „excessive barriers to our ecumenical progress“. [98] Benedict also acknowledged the Lutheran church, asserting that he has had chums in that denomination.

Judaism

When Benedict ascended to the Papacy his election became welcomed by the Anti-Defamation League who successfully-known „his mountainous sensitivity to Jewish historical previous and the Holocaust“. [99] On the other hand, his election obtained a more reserved response from the United Kingdom’s Chief Rabbi Jonathan Sacks, who hoped that Benedict would „continue alongside the path of Pope John XXIII and Pope John Paul II in working to enhance kinfolk with the Jewish folks and the Bellow of Israel.“ [100] The Foreign Minister of Israel also equipped more tentative reward, even supposing the Minister believed that „this Pope, brooding about his historical experience, will be especially dedicated to an uncompromising fight against anti-Semitism.“ [100]

Critics have accused Benedict’s papacy of insensitivity towards Judaism. The 2 most prominent cases were the expansion of the usage of the Tridentine Mass and the lifting of the excommunication on four bishops from the Society of St. Pius X (SSPX). Within the True Friday provider, the worn Mass rubrics encompass a prayer that asks God to score the veil so they [Jews] would maybe perchance very successfully be delivered from their darkness . This prayer has historically been contentious in Judaic-Catholic kinfolk and several other teams saw the restoration of the Tridentine Mass as problematic. [101][102][103][104][105] Amongst these whose excommunications were lifted became Bishop Richard Williamson, an outspoken historical revisionist in most cases interpreted as a Holocaust denier. [106][107][108][109] The lifting of his excommunication led critics to charge that the Pope became condoning his historical revisionist views. [110]

Islam

Pope Benedict’s kinfolk with Islam were strained at cases. On 12 September 2006 he delivered a lecture which touched on Islam on the University of Regensburg in Germany. The Pope had beforehand served there as a professor of theology, and his lecture became entitled „Faith, Cause and the University—Recollections and Reflections“. The lecture obtained noteworthy attention from political and non secular authorities. Many Islamic politicians and non secular leaders registered their teach against what they labelled an insulting mischaracterisation of Islam, even supposing his heart of attention became aimed towards the rationality of non secular violence, and its elevate out on the faith. [111][112] Muslims were notably offended by this passage that the Pope quoted in his speech: „Show conceal me actual what Muhammad brought that became fresh and there you might perchance secure things entirely sinful and inhuman, such as his expose to spread by the sword the faith he preached.“ [112]

The passage at the beginning appeared within the Dialogue Held with a Certain Persian, the Correct Mouterizes, in Anakara of Galatia [113][114] written in 1391 as an expression of the views of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Paleologus, one amongst the last Christian rulers forward of the Fall of Constantinople to the Muslim Ottoman Empire, on such concerns as forced conversion, holy battle, and the connection between faith and reason. In accordance with the German text, the Pope’s long-established commentary became that the emperor „addresses his interlocutor in an astoundingly harsh—to us surprisingly harsh—system“ (wendet er sich in erstaunlich schroffer, united statesüberraschend schroffer Originate). [115] Pope Benedict apologised for any offence he had precipitated and made a level of visiting Turkey, a predominantly Muslim country, and praying in its Blue Mosque. Benedict planned on 5 March 2008, to meet with Muslim scholars and non secular leaders autumn 2008 at a Catholic-Muslim seminar in Rome. [116] That meeting, the „First Meeting of the Catholic-Muslim Dialogue board,“ became held from Four–6 November 2008. [117] On 9 Might furthermore 2009, Benedict visited the King Hussein Mosque, Amman, Jordan the put he became addressed by Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad. [118]

Tibetan Buddhism

The Dalai Lama congratulated Pope Benedict XVI upon his election, [119] and visited him in October 2006 within the Vatican City. In 2007 China became accused of the usage of its political affect to ruin a gathering between the Pope and the Dalai Lama. [120]

Indigenous American beliefs

Whereas visiting Brazil in Might furthermore 2007, „the pope sparked controversy by asserting that native populations had been ’silently longing‘ for the Christian faith delivered to South The USA by colonizers.“ [121] The Pope continued, declaring that „the proclamation of Jesus and of his Gospel did now now not at any point like an alienation of the pre-Columbus cultures, nor became it the imposition of a foreign culture.“ [121] The then President of Venezuela, Hugo Chávez demanded an apology, and an indigenous organisation in Ecuador issued a response which said that „representatives of the Catholic Church of these cases, with honourable exceptions, were accomplices, deceivers and beneficiaries of 1 in all essentially the most horrific genocides of all humanity.“ [121] Later, the Pope, talking Italian, acknowledged at a weekly target audience that it became „now now not likely to neglect the struggling and the injustices inflicted by colonizers against the indigenous population, whose elementary human rights were usually trampled.“ [122]

Hinduism

Whereas visiting the US on 17 April 2008, Benedict met with Worldwide Society for Krishna Consciousness handbook Radhika Ramana Dasa; [123] a successfully-known Hindu student [124] and disciple of Hanumatpreshaka Swami. [125] On behalf of the Hindu American neighborhood, Radhika Ramana Dasa offered a reward of an Om image to Benedict. [126][127]

Apostolic ministry

Pope Benedict XVI in a Mercedes-Benz popemobile in São Paulo, Brazil

As pontiff, Benedict XVI applied a gigantic assortment of Apostolic actions including journeys all the plan thru the realm and within the Vatican.

Benedict travelled widely for the period of the first three years of his papacy. Besides to to his travels within Italy, Pope Benedict XVI made two visits to his place of origin, Germany, one for World Formative years Day and one more to seek the advice of with the towns of his childhood. He also visited Poland and Spain, the put he became enthusiastically obtained. [128] His seek the advice of with to Turkey, an overwhelmingly Muslim nation, became on the beginning put overshadowed by the controversy about a lecture he had given at Regensburg. His seek the advice of with became met by nationalist and Islamic protesters [129] and became positioned below unparalleled safety features. [130] On the other hand, the outing went forward and Benedict made a joint declaration with Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I in an are attempting and launch to heal the rift between the Catholic and Orthodox churches.

In 2007, Pope Benedict visited Brazil in expose to handle the Bishops‘ Convention there and canonize Friar Antônio Galvão, an 18th-century Franciscan. In June 2007, Benedict made a inner most pilgrimage and pastoral seek the advice of with to Assisi, the birthplace of St. Francis. In September, Benedict undertook a three-day seek the advice of with to Austria, [131] for the period of which he joined Vienna’s Chief Rabbi, Paul Chaim Eisenberg, in a memorial to the sixty 5,000 Viennese Jews who perished in Nazi death camps. [132] For the period of his achieve in Austria, he also successfully-known Mass on the Marian shrine Mariazell and visited Heiligenkreuz Abbey. [133]

Pope Benedict XVI celebrates his 81st birthday with US President George W. Bush and his wife, Laura. The White Condominium, Washington DC

In April 2008, Pope Benedict XVI made his first seek the advice of with to the US since turning into pope. [134] He arrived in Washington, DC the put he became formally obtained on the White Condominium and met privately with US President George W. Bush. [135] Whereas in Washington, the pope addressed representatives of US Catholic universities, met with leaders of alternative world religions, and successfully-known Mass on the Washington Nationals‘ baseball stadium with Forty seven,000 folks. [136] The Pope also met privately with victims of sexual abuse by monks. The Pope travelled to Unique York the put he addressed the United Worldwide locations Total Meeting. [137] Also while in Unique York, the Pope successfully-known Mass at St. Patrick’s Cathedral, met with disabled children and their households, and attended an tournament for Catholic early life, the put he addressed some 25,000 children in attendance. [138] On the final day of the Pope’s seek the advice of with, he visited the World Trade Heart location and later successfully-known Mass at Yankee Stadium. [139]

In July 2008, the Pope travelled to Australia to back World Formative years Day 2008 in Sydney. On 19 July, in St. Mary’s Cathedral, he made an apology for little one intercourse abuse perpetrated by the clergy in Australia. [140][141] On 13 September 2008, at an exterior Paris Mass attended by 250,000 folks, Pope Benedict XVI condemned the favored materialism – the realm’s fancy of energy, possessions and money as a new-day plague, evaluating it to paganism. [142][143] In 2009, he visited Africa (Cameroon and Angola) for the first time as pope. For the period of his seek the advice of with, he fast that altering sexual behavior became the reply to Africa’s AIDS disaster, and entreated Catholics to be triumphant in out and convert believers in sorcery. He visited the Heart East (Jordan, Israel and Palestine) in Might furthermore 2009.

Pope Benedict’s main enviornment for pastoral exercise became the Vatican itself, his Christmas and Easter homilies and Urbi et Orbi are delivered from St Peter’s Basilica. The Vatican is also the entirely customary affirm the put Benedict XVI traveled thru motor with out the conserving bulletproof case in type to most popemobiles. Despite the more actual setting, Pope Benedict became sufferer to security dangers several cases inner Vatican City. On Wednesday, 6 June 2007 for the period of his Total Viewers a man leapt all the plan thru a barrier, evaded guards and nearly mounted the Pope’s car, even supposing he became stopped and Benedict perceived to be unaware of the tournament. On Thursday, 24 December 2009, while Pope Benedict became persevering with to the altar to celebrate Christmas Eve Mass at St Peter’s Basilica, a girl later identified as 25-yr-outdated Susanna Maiolo, who holds Italian and Swiss citizenships, jumped the barrier and grabbed the Pope by his vestments and pulled him to the bottom. The 82-yr-outdated fell but became assisted to his toes and he continued to proceed towards the altar to celebrate Mass. Roger Etchegaray, 87, the vice-dean of the Faculty of Cardinals, fell also and suffered a hip break. Italian police reported that the woman had beforehand attempted to accost the Pope on the old Christmas Eve Mass, but became prevented from doing so. [144][145]

Pope Benedict XVI in Balzan, Malta

In his homily, Pope Benedict forgave Susanna Maiolo [146] and entreated the realm to „wake up“ from selfishness and petty affairs, and secure time for God and non secular matters. [144]

Pope Benedict XVI in Zagreb, Croatia

Between 17 and 18 April, Pope Benedict made an Apostolic Hobble to the Republic of Malta. Following meetings with varied dignitaries on his first day on the island, 50,000 folks gathered in a drizzle for Papal Mass on the granaries in Floriana. The Pope also met with the Maltese early life on the Valletta Waterfront, the put an estimated 10,000 children became as much as greet him. [147] For the period of his seek the advice of with the Pope became moved to tears while expressing his shame at cases of abuse on the island for the period of a 20-minute meeting with victims. [148]

Sexual abuse within the Catholic Church

Earlier than 2001, the significant responsibility for investigating allegations of sexual abuse and disciplining perpetrators rested with the actual person dioceses. In 2001, Ratzinger convinced John Paul II to place the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in administration of all investigations and policies surrounding sexual abuse in expose to fight such abuse more efficiently. [149][150] In accordance with John L. Allen, Jr., Ratzinger within the next years „bought a familiarity with the contours of the field that just about no other decide within the Catholic Church can claim“ and „driven by that come all the plan thru with what he would later consult with as ‚filth‘ within the Church, Ratzinger seems to have gone thru one thing of a ‚conversion experience‘ one day of 2003–04. From that time forward, he and his crew appeared driven by a convert’s zeal to orderly up the mess“. [151] In his impartial as Head of the CDF, he „led fundamental adjustments made in Church legislation: the inclusion in canon legislation of web offences against children, the extension of little one abuse offences to encompass the sexual abuse of all below 18, the case by case waiving of the statute of limitation and the institution of a swiftly-discover dismissal from the clerical affirm for offenders.“ [152] As the Head of the CDF, Ratzinger developed a recognition for handling these cases. In accordance with Charles J. Scicluna, a outdated prosecutor handling sexual abuse cases, „Cardinal Ratzinger displayed mountainous wisdom and firmness in handling these cases, also demonstrating mountainous braveness in facing a pair of of essentially the most sophisticated and thorny cases, sine acceptione personarum (with out exceptions)“. [153][154]

One of the cases Ratzinger pursued eager Father Marcial Maciel Degollado, a Mexican priest and founding father of the Legion of Christ, who had been accused time and again of sexual abuse. Biographer Andrea Tornielli fast that Cardinal Ratzinger had wanted to take motion against Marcial Maciel Degollado, but that John Paul II and other excessive-ranking officers, including several cardinals and notably the Pope’s influential secretary Stanisław Dziwisz, prevented him from doing so. [150][155] In accordance with Jason Berry, Angelo Sodano „forced“ Cardinal Ratzinger, who became „operating on the conclusion that the funds were now now not justified“, to quit the complaints against Maciel in 1999 [156] When Maciel became honored by the Pope in 2004, fresh accusers came forward [156] and Cardinal Ratzinger „took it on himself to authorize an investigation of Maciel“ [150] After Ratzinger grew to turn out to be pope he began complaints against Maciel and the Legion of Christ that forced Maciel out of active provider within the Church. [149] On 1 Might furthermore 2010 the Vatican issued a observation denouncing Maciel’s „very excessive and objectively execrable acts“, which were „confirmed by incontrovertible testimonies“ and whisper „factual crimes and manifest a life with out scruples or legitimate non secular sentiment.“ Pope Benedict also acknowledged he would appoint a determined charge to deem about the Legionaries‘ constitution and launch an investigation into its lay affiliate Regnum Christi. [157] Cardinal Christoph Schönborn explained that Ratzinger „made entirely clear efforts now to now not quilt things up but to handle and study them. This became now now not constantly met with approval within the Vatican“. [149][158] In accordance with Schönborn, Cardinal Ratzinger had pressed John Paul II to study Hans Hermann Groër, an Austrian cardinal and expedient friend of John Paul accused of sexual abuse, main to Groër’s resignation. [155]

In March 2010, the Pope despatched a Pastoral Letter to the Catholic Church in Eire addressing cases of sexual abuse by Catholic monks to minors, expressing sorrow, and promising adjustments within the kind accusations of abuse are handled. [159] Victim teams claim the letter failed to clarify if secular legislation enforcement has priority over canon legislation confidentiality bearing on inner investigation of abuse allegations. [160][161][162][163] The Pope then promised to introduce measures that will ’safeguard children one day‘ and ‚bring to justice‘ monks who were in charge for abuse. [148] In April, the Vatican issued pointers on how reward Church legislation wants to be implemented. The tenet dictates that „Civil legislation regarding reporting of crimes… ought to constantly be adopted.“ [164] The tenet became supposed to take a look on the norms established by US bishops, alternatively it would now not require the reporting of „allegations“ or crimes the put reporting is now now not required by legislation. [165]

Attire

Pope Benedict XVI wearing Cappello Romano for the period of an launch-air Mass in 2007

Pope Benedict XVI in choir costume with the crimson summer papal mozzetta, embroidered crimson stole, and the crimson papal shoes.

Pope Benedict XVI re-launched several papal garments which had beforehand fallen into disuse. Pope Benedict XVI resumed the usage of the worn crimson papal shoes, which had been broken-down since Roman cases by popes but which had fallen into disuse for the period of the sound off of Pope John Paul II. Contrary to the preliminary hypothesis of the clicking that the shoes had been made by the Italian vogue dwelling Prada, the Vatican launched that the shoes were equipped by the Pope’s inner most shoemaker. [166]

On entirely one occasion, 21 December 2005, the Pope wore the camauro, the worn crimson papal hat on the entire worn within the iciness. It had now now not been considered since the sound off of Pope John XXIII (1958–1963). On 6 September 2006, the Pope began wearing the crimson cappello romano (occasionally called a saturno), a huge-brimmed hat for out of doors expend. Not usually broken-down by John Paul II, it became more broadly worn by his predecessors.

Charlotte Allen describes Benedict as „the pope of aesthetics“: „He has reminded a world that seems to be to be like more and more gruesome and debased that there’s such a ingredient because the magnificent—whether or now now not it’s embodied in a sonata or an altarpiece or an embroidered cope or the slash of a cassock—and that earthly beauty somehow communicates a beauty that is previous earthly things.“ [8]

Properly being

Earlier than his election as pope in 2005, Ratzinger had hoped to retire—on yarn of age-linked health concerns, a prolonged-held wish to have free time to write, and the retirement age for bishops (Seventy five)—and submitted his resignation as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith three cases, but continued at his submit in obedience to the needs of Pope John Paul II. In September 1991, Ratzinger suffered a hemorrhagic stroke, which a little bit impaired his eyesight fast but he recovered entirely. [167] This became never officially made public—the reputable news became that Ratzinger had fallen and struck his head against a radiator—but became an launch secret known to the conclave that elected him pope. [168]

Following his election in April 2005 there have been several rumors about the Pope’s health, but none of them were confirmed. Early in his sound off Benedict XVI predicted a brief reign, which resulted in concerns about his health. [169] In Might furthermore 2005 the Vatican launched that he had suffered one more calm stroke. French Cardinal Philippe Barbarin acknowledged that since the first stroke Ratzinger had been laid low with an age-linked coronary heart condition, for which he became on medication. In slack November 2006 Vatican insiders fast the international press that the Pope had had a routine examination of the coronary heart. [168] A few days later an unconfirmed rumor emerged that Pope Benedict had gone thru an operation in preparation for an eventual bypass operation, but this rumor became entirely published by a minute left-fly Italian newspaper and became never confirmed by any Vatican insider. [170]

On 17 July 2009, Benedict became hospitalized after falling and breaking his actual wrist while on trot back and forth within the Alps; his injuries were reported to be minor. [171]

Following the announcement of his resignation, the Vatican published that Pope Benedict had been fitted with a pacemaker while he became quiet a cardinal, forward of his election as pope in 2005. The battery within the pacemaker had been modified three months earlier, a routine process, but that did now now not affect his resolution. [172]

Currently, Benedict has a pair of health concerns including excessive blood stress and reportedly has fallen up and doing more than as soon as, however the Vatican denies any dispute ailments. [173]

Resignation

Benedict XVI in a popemobile at his final Wednesday Total Viewers in St. Peter’s Square on 27 February 2013

On 11 February 2013, the Vatican confirmed that Benedict XVI would resign the papacy on 28 February 2013, because his stepped forward age, [174] turning into the first pope to resign since Gregory XII in 1415. [175] At the age of eighty five years and 318 days on the fantastic date of his retirement, he became the fourth-oldest person to take care of the place of work of pope. The switch became considered surprising. [176] Nowa days, all popes have stayed in place of work except death. Benedict is the first pope to have resigned with out exterior stress since Celestine V in 1294. [177][178]

In a observation, Benedict cited his deteriorating power and the bodily and mental requires of the papacy; [179] addressing his cardinals in Latin, Benedict gave a brief observation announcing his resignation. He also declared that he would continue to back the church „thru a life dedicated to prayer“. [179]

In accordance with a observation from the Vatican, the timing of the resignation became now now not precipitated by any dispute sickness but became to „retain away from that exhausting bustle of Easter engagements“. [180] After two weeks of ceremonial farewells, the Pope left place of work on the appointed time and sede vacante became declared.

On the eve of the first anniversary of Benedict’s resignation he wrote to La Stampa to disclaim hypothesis he had been forced to step down. „There’s now now not the slightest doubt about the validity of my resignation from the Petrine ministry,“ he wrote in a letter to the newspaper. „The entirely condition for the validity is the stout freedom of the resolution. Speculation about its invalidity is simply absurd,“ he wrote. [181]

Pope Emeritus

Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI in 2014

On the morning of 28 February 2013, Pope Benedict met with the stout college of cardinals and within the early afternoon flew by helicopter to the papal summer affirm of Castel Gandolfo. He stayed there except refurbishment became carried out on his retirement dwelling, the Mater Ecclesiae monastery within the Vatican Gardens conclude to St Peter’s, beforehand dwelling to 12 nuns, the put he moved on 2 Might furthermore 2013. [182] To guard it there’ll be a thick hedge and a fence. It has more than 2,000 square meters of garden that miss out on the monastery and are adjacent to essentially the most up-to-date „Pope’s garden“. A few tens of meters away is the constructing of Vatican Radio. [183]

After his resignation, Benedict XVI retained his papal title quite than reverting to his birth title. [184] He continued to place on the white cassock but with out the pellegrina or the fascia. He ceased wearing crimson papal shoes. [185][186] Benedict returned his reputable Fisherman’s Ring, which is on the entire destroyed by Vatican officers on the death of a pope to ruin paperwork being counterfeited.

In accordance with a Vatican spokesman, Benedict spent his first day as pope emeritus with Archbishop Georg Gänswein. [187] Within the monastery, the pope emeritus is now now not going to are living a cloistered life, but will stare and write. [183] The pope emeritus later joined his successor several months after his election on the unveiling of a brand fresh statue of Saint Michael the Archangel. The inscription on the statue, in step with Cardinal Giovanni Lajolo, would have the coat of fingers of the 2 popes to whisper the indisputable truth that statue became commissioned by Benedict XVI, and consecrated by Francis. [188]

Benedict XVI made his first public take care of his resignation at St. Peter’s Basilica on 22 February 2014 to back the first papal consistory of his successor Pope Francis. Benedict XVI, who entered the basilica thru a discreet entrance, became seated in a row with several other cardinals. He doffed his zucchetto when Pope Francis came down the nave of St. Peter’s Basilica to greet him. [189] Furthermore, he made an look on the canonization mass of Pope John XXIII and Pope John Paul II, greeting the cardinals and Pope Francis.

In August 2014, Benedict XVI successfully-known Mass on the Vatican and met with his outdated doctoral students, an annual custom he has kept since the 1970s. [190] He attended the beatification of Pope Paul VI in October 2014. [191] Weeks forward of this, he joined Pope Francis in Saint Peter’s Square for an target audience with grandparents to honor their significance in society. [192]

Benedict wrote the text of a speech, delivered by Archbishop Georg Gänswein, on the occasion of the dedication of the Aula Magna on the Pontifical Urbaniana University to the Pope Emeritus, „a gesture of gratitude for what he has accomplished for the Church as a conciliar educated, with his instructing as professor, as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and, somehow, the Magisterium.“ The ceremony took affirm on Tuesday, 21 October 2014 for the period of the gap of the educational yr. [193]

Benedict XVI attended the consistory for new cardinals in February 2015, greeting Pope Francis on the beginning of the birthday celebration. [194] In 2015, Benedict XVI, who now prefers to be known as „Father Benedict“, [195] spent the summer at Castel Gandolfo and took part in two public occasions. „Pope Francis invited Benedict XVI to exercise some time in Castel Gandolfo within the month of July and Benedict accredited“, Fr. Lombardi fast journalists on 15 June. Benedict XVI remained there for 2 weeks. Whereas in Castel Gandolfo, Benedict XVI obtained two honorary doctorates, given to him by Kraków’s Cardinal Stanislaw Dziwisz, John Paul II’s longtime aide, from the Pontifical University of John Paul II and the Kraków Academy of Song. [196] In his reception handle, Benedict XVI paid homage to his predecessor, John Paul II. [196]

The „Joseph Ratzinger–Benedict XVI Roman Library“ on the Pontifical Teutonic Faculty became launched in April 2015 and is scheduled to launch to scholars in November 2015. [197] The library half dedicated to his life and idea is being catalogued. It entails books by or about him and his experiences, many donated by Benedict XVI himself. [198][199]

Benedict XVI, in August 2015, submitted a handwritten card to behave as a sworn observation to the distance off of canonization of Pope John Paul I. [200][201]

In March 2016 he gave an interview expressing his views on mercy and the truth the Pope Francis is within the custom of the Church. [202] Also that month, a Vatican spokesman said that Benedict XVI became „slowly, serenely fading“ in his bodily health, even supposing his mental ability remained „completely lucid“. [203]

The pope emeritus became honoured by the Roman Curia and Pope Francis in 2016 at a determined target audience, honouring the Sixty fifth anniversary of his ordination to the priesthood. [204] Benedict XVI, later that yr in November, did now now not back the consistory for new cardinals, even supposing he did meet with them and Pope Francis at his affirm after the consistory had taken affirm. [205]

28 June 2017, the Pope Emeritus obtained the newly created Cardinals in his chapel, „spoke with all of them in their native tongue“, and remarked that they were „from the four continents, your entire church“. „The Lord wins within the ruin“, „thank you all“, he acknowledged, forward of giving them his blessings. [206]

Titles and kinds

The reputable form of the outdated Pope in English is His Holiness Benedict XVI, Supreme Pontiff Emeritus or Pope Emeritus . [207] Less formally he’s usually known as emeritus pope or Roman pontifex emeritus. [208]

As pope, his hardly ever ever broken-down stout title became:

His Holiness Benedict XVI, Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, Successor of the Prince of the Apostles, Supreme Pontiff of the In type Church, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Sovereign of the Vatican City Bellow, Servant of the servants of God. [209]

The fantastic-known title, that of „Pope“, would now not seem within the reputable checklist of titles, but is usually broken-down within the titles of paperwork, and seems, in abbreviated produce, in their signatures as „PP.“ standing for “ Papa “ („Pope“). [210][211][212][213][214]

Earlier than 1 March 2006, the checklist of titles also broken-down to like that of a „Patriarch of the West“, which traditionally appeared in that checklist of titles forward of „Primate of Italy“. The title of „Patriarch of the West“ became first launched into the papal court docket in 1870 on the time of the First Vatican Council within the publication Annuario Pontificio and became eradicated within the 2006 edition. Pope Benedict selected to put off the title at a time when discussions with the Orthodox churches have centered on the subject of papal primacy. [215]

Positions on lovely and political concerns

Birth administration and HIV/AIDS

In 2005, the Pope listed several ways to fight the spread of HIV, including chastity, constancy in marriage and anti-poverty efforts; he also rejected the usage of condoms. [216] The alleged Vatican investigation of whether or now now not there are any cases when married folks would maybe perchance well expend condoms to present protection to against the spread of infections stunned many Catholics within the wake of John Paul II’s consistent refusal to retain in mind condom expend per AIDS. [217] On the other hand, the Vatican has since said that no such switch within the Church’s instructing can occur. [218]TIME also reported in its edition of 30 April 2006 that the Vatican’s affirm stays what it constantly has been with Vatican officers „flatly brush off[ing] reports that the Vatican is about to launch a doc that will condone any condom expend.“ [218]

In March 2009, the Pope said:

I’d tell that this field of AIDS can now now not be overcome merely with money, fundamental even supposing it’s. If there’s now not any human dimension, if Africans elevate out now now not abet, the field can now now not be overcome by the distribution of prophylactics: quite the opposite, they lift it. The solution ought to have two elements: on the beginning put, bringing out the human dimension of sexuality, that is to tell a non secular and human renewal that will bring with it a brand fresh system of behaving towards others, and secondly, factual friendship equipped above all to those which would maybe perchance very successfully be struggling, a willingness to originate sacrifices and to practise self-denial, to be alongside the struggling. [219]

In November 2010, in ae book-measurement interview, the Pope, the usage of the instance of male prostitutes, said that the usage of condoms, with the plan of reducing the threat of HIV an infection, would maybe perchance very successfully be a signal that the prostitute is desiring to slash the sinful linked with his or her execrable exercise. [220] Within the identical interview, the Pope also reiterated the worn instructing of the Church that condoms are now now not considered as a „proper or lovely solution“ to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Extra, in December 2010, the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith explained that the Pope’s observation did now now not constitute a legitimization of either contraception or prostitution, which stays gravely execrable. [220]

Homosexuality

For the period of his time as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF), Benedict XVI made several efforts to handle the field of homosexuality within the Church and the wider world. In 1986 the CDF despatched a letter to all bishops entitled: On the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons . The letter condemned a liberal interpretation of the sooner CDF doc Declaration on Certain Questions Regarding Sexual Ethics , which had resulted in a „benign“ perspective „to the homosexual condition itself“. On the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons clarified that the Church’s affirm on homosexuality became that „even supposing the actual inclination of the homosexual person is now now not a sin, it’s a more or less sturdy tendency ordered toward an intrinsic lovely sinful; and thus the inclination itself ought to be considered as an goal dysfunction.“ [221] On the other hand the doc also condemned homophobic assaults and violence, declaring that „It is noxious that homosexual folks have been and are the object of violent malice in speech or in motion. Such treatment deserves condemnation from the Church’s pastors wherever it occurs.“ [221]

In 1992, he again licensed CDF paperwork declaring that homosexual „inclination itself ought to be considered as an goal dysfunction“ and prolonged this idea to civil legislation. „Sexual orientation“, the doc acknowledged, became now now not an identical to stride or ethnicity, and it declared that it became „now now not unjust discrimination to take sexual orientation into yarn.“ [222]

On 22 December 2008, the Pope gave an ruin of yr message to the Roman Curia in which he talked about gender and the fundamental distinction between men and females. The Pope acknowledged that the church considered the excellence as central to human nature, and „asks that this expose of creation be revered“. The church, he acknowledged, ought to „provide protection to man from self-destruction.“ He acknowledged „one thing like a human ecology“ became needed, adding: „Rain forests deserve certainly to be protected, but no less so does man“. He attacked gender theories which he described as „man’s attempt at self-emancipation from creation and the Creator.“ [223][224][225]

LGBT teams such because the Italian Arcigay and German LSVD have launched that they found the Pope’s comments homophobic. [226] Aurelio Mancuso, head of Arcigay, asserting „A divine programme for men and females is out of line with nature, the put the roles are now now not so clear.“ [224] Canadian author Daniel Gawthrop, in an fundamental biography, The Trial of Pope Benedict , acknowledged that the Pope blamed homosexuality „for a field the church had willingly enabled for a bunch of of years.“ [227]

Father Federico Lombardi, a Vatican spokesman, claimed the Pope had now now not wished particularly to attack folks with homosexual inclinations, and had now now not mentioned gays or lesbians in his text. Father Lombardi insisted, alternatively, that there had been an overreaction to the Pope’s remarks: „He became talking more on the entire about gender theories which miss out on the elementary distinction in creation between men and females and heart of attention as a substitute on cultural conditioning.“ Nonetheless, the remarks were interpreted as a call to assign mankind from homosexuals and transsexuals. [224]

Identical-intercourse marriage

For the period of a 2012 Christmas speech, [228] the Pope made remarks about the showcase-day interpretation of the idea of „gender“. He said that „intercourse is now now not a given ingredient of nature, that man has to accept and personally originate sense of: it’s a social impartial that we score for ourselves“, and „The phrases of the creation yarn: “female and male he created them” (Gen 1:27) now now not discover“. Though he did now not mention the topic, his phrases were interpreted by news media as denunciations of identical-intercourse marriage, [229] with some sources adding that Benedict would have known because it a threat to world peace an identical to abortion and euthanasia. [230] In March 2012, he said that heterosexual marriages wants to be defended from „each and every likely misrepresentation of their factual nature“. [231]

Worldwide kinfolk

Migrants and refugees

In a message launched 14 November 2006, for the period of a Vatican press conference for the 2007 annual observance of World Day for Migrants and Refugees, the Pope entreated the ratification of international conventions and policies that protect all migrants, including refugees, exiles, evacuees and internally displaced folks. „The church encourages the ratification of the international simply instruments that goal to protect the rights of migrants, refugees and their households,“ the Pope acknowledged. „Considerable is already being accomplished for the blending of the households of immigrants, even supposing noteworthy quiet stays to be accomplished.“ [232]

Benedict with President of Russia Vladimir Putin on 13 March 2007

Pope Benedict also promoted varied UN occasions, such as World Refugee Day, on which he equipped up particular prayers for refugees and known as for the international neighborhood to elevate out more to actual refugees‘ human rights. He occasionally called on Catholic communities and organizations to present them concrete abet. [233]

In 2015, it became reported that the Pope became „praying for migrants and refugees“ from Syria. [234]

China

In 2007, Benedict despatched a letter at Easter to Catholics in China that would maybe perchance have wide-ranging implications for the church’s relationship with China’s leadership. The letter provides prolonged-requested steering to Chinese bishops on the kind to reply to illicitly ordained bishops, as successfully because the kind to strengthen ties with the Patriotic Affiliation and the Communist executive. [235]

Korea

On 13 November 2006, Benedict acknowledged that the dispute over the North Korea nuclear weapons program wants to be resolved thru negotiations, in his first public commentary on the safety field, a news report acknowledged. „The Holy Glimpse encourages bilateral or multilateral negotiations, convinced that the answer ought to be sought thru smooth methodology and in admire for agreements taken by either aspect to accept as true with the denuclearisation of the Korean Peninsula.“ Benedict became talking to the fresh Jap ambassador to the Vatican. [236]

Truthahn

In a 2004 Le Figaro interview, Ratzinger acknowledged that Turkey, which is demographically Muslim but governmentally secular by virtue of its affirm constitution, ought to search out out about its future in an affiliation of Muslim countries quite than the European Union, which Ratzinger said has Christian roots. He acknowledged Turkey had constantly been „in everlasting difference to Europe and that linking it to Europe is known as a mistake“. [237]

Later visiting the country to „reiterate the team spirit between the cultures,“ it became reported that he made a counter-observation backing Turkey’s whisper to affix the EU. Top Minister of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, acknowledged that the Pope fast him in their meeting that while the Vatican seeks to achieve out of politics it needs Turkey’s membership within the EU. [238][239] On the other hand, the Total Declaration of Pope Benedict XVI and Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople implied that strengthen for Turkey’s membership within the European Union can be contingent on the institution of non secular freedom in Turkey: [240] „In each and every step towards unification, minorities ought to be protected, with their cultural traditions and the distinguishing sides of their faith.“ [241] The Declaration also reiterates Pope Benedict XVI’s call for Europe to achieve its Christian roots.

Israel

In Might furthermore 2009, he visited Israel. [242][243] This became the zero.33 Papal seek the advice of with to the Holy Land, the old ones being made by Pope Paul VI in 1964 and Pope John Paul II in 2000.

Vietnam

Pope Benedict XVI and Top Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng met on the Vatican on 25 January 2007 in a „fresh and fundamental step towards organising diplomatic ties“. [244] The Pope met with President Nguyễn Minh Triết on 11 December 2009. Vatican officers known as the meeting „a fundamental stage within the progress of bilateral kinfolk with Vietnam.“ [245]

World economy

In 2009, the Pope intervened in global economic and political affairs with his zero.33 encyclical, Charity in Truth (Latin Caritas in veritate ), that would maybe perchance very successfully be considered on the Vatican’s web location. [246] This doc space out the then reigning Pope’s affirm on the case for worldwide redistribution of wealth in substantial detail and goes on to focus on the atmosphere, migration, terrorism, sexual tourism, bioethics, energy and population concerns. The Financial Times reported that Benedict XVI’s advocacy for a fairer redistribution of wealth helped space the agenda for the 2009 July G8 summit. [247][248]

Also integrated in Charity in Truth is advocacy for tax preference:

One likely system to construction back can be to have a study successfully what’s named fiscal subsidiarity, allowing electorate to whisper the kind to allocate a fragment of the taxes they pay to the Bellow. Offered it would now not degenerate into the promotion of particular interests, this would maybe perchance abet to stimulate forms of welfare team spirit from below, with obvious benefits within the distance of team spirit for construction as successfully. [Bearbeiten]

Nuclear energy

Pope Benedict XVI known as for nuclear disarmament. At the identical time, he supported the smooth expend of nuclear energy as a tool for construction and the fight against poverty. In his message for the Fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Worldwide Atomic Energy Agency, he confirmed: „The Holy Glimpse, fully approving of the IAEA’s goal, has been a member from the organisation’s foundation and continues to strengthen its exercise.“ [249]

Pursuits

Pope Benedict XVI on the Synod of Bishops 2008 in Rome, Italy

Benedict is known to be deeply drawn to classical song, [250] and is an carried out pianist. [251] The Pontiff Emeritus‘ favourite composer is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, of whose song the Pope acknowledged, „His song is by no methodology actual entertainment; it contains your entire tragedy of human existence.“ [252] Benedict also said that Mozart’s song affected him very much as a younger man and „deeply penetrated his soul“. [252] Benedict’s favourite works of song are Mozart’s Clarinet Concerto and Clarinet Quintet. [253] He recorded an album of new classical song in which he sings and recites prayers to the Blessed Virgin Mary. [254] The album became space for launch on 30 November 2009.

He is also known to be fond of cats. [250] As Cardinal Ratzinger he became known (in step with outdated neighbours) to study after stray cats in his neighbourhood. A e book known as Joseph and Chico: A Cat Recounts the Lifestyles of Pope Benedict XVI became published in 2007 which fast the memoir of the Pope’s life from the feline Chico’s point of view. This memoir became impressed by an orange tabby Pentling cat, which belonged to the household spherical the corner. [255] For the period of his outing to Australia for World Formative years Day in 2008 the media reported that festival organizers lent the Pope a grey cat known as Bella [256] in expose to retain him company for the period of his achieve. [257]

Social networking

In December 2012, the Vatican launched that Pope Benedict XVI had joined social networking web location Twitter, below the handle @Pontifex. [258] His first tweet became made on 12 December and became „Dear chums, I am entirely joyful to web in contact with you thru Twitter. Thank you to your agreeable response. I bless all of you from my coronary heart.“ [259] On 28 February 2013, the day he retired, the tweets were deleted, and @Pontifex read „Sede Vacante“. [260] Pope Francis at last took administration of the @Pontifex yarn upon his election. [261]

Honours and awards

As pope, Benedict became Sizable Master of the next orders: Supreme Notify of Christ, Notify of the Golden Spur, Notify of Pius IX, Equestrian Notify of St. Gregory the Wide and the Notify of St. Sylvester.

1977 Sizable Noxious of the National Notify of Benefit of the Republic of Ecuador
1977 Knight Sizable Noxious of the Bavarian Notify of Benefit
1985 Sizable Benefit Noxious with Well-known person and Sash of the Federal Republic of Germany
1985 Bayerische Verfassungsmedaille (Bavarian Structure Medal) in Gold
1989 Ordine della Minerva on the University of Chieti
1989 Augustin Bea Prize (Rome)
1989 Karl-Valentin-Orden (Munich)
1991 Leopold Kunschak Prize (Vienna)
1991 Georg von Hertling Medal of Kartellverband katholischer deutscher Studentenvereine
1992 Sizable Decoration of Honour in Gold with Sash for Products and providers to the Republic of Austria
1992 Literature Prize Capri S. Michele in Anacapri
1992 Premio Internazionale di Cultura Cattolica, Bassano del Grappa
1993 literary prize Premio Letterario Basilicata per la Letteratura e Poesia religiosa Spirituale in Potenza (Italy)
1996 Knight of the Bavarian Maximilian Notify for Science and Art
1998 Commander of the Legion of Honour ( Légion d’honneur ) (France)
1999 Bailiff Sizable Noxious of Honour and Devotion of the Sovereign Defense drive Notify of Malta
2002 Liberal Trieste
2004 Literature Prize Capri S. Michele in Anacapri
Honorary doctorates
1984 University of St. Thomas (St. Paul, Minnesota, USA; Honorary Doctor of Human Letters)
1986 Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru (Pontifical Catholic University of Peru)
1987 Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt
1988 Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski (Catholic University of Lublin, Poland)
1998 University of Navarra (Pamplona, Spain)
1999 Libera Università Maria SS Assunta Roma (Maria SS Assunta Free University, Rome) (honorary stage in legislation)
2000 Uniwersytet Wrocławski (University of Wroclaw, Poland; Honorary Doctor of Theology)
2005 Universatea Babes-Bolyai in Cluj-Napoca (Babeș-Bolyai University)
Honorary citizenships
1987 Pentling, conclude to Regensburg, predicament of his main German affirm
1997 Marktl, his birthplace
2005 Traunstein, predicament of the college and the stare seminar he attended
2006 Altötting, in Bavaria
2006 Regensburg, worked as a stout, later as a visiting, professor
2006 Aschau am Inn, began college and obtained Mass for the first time
2007 Tittmoning, the put he spent segment of his childhood
2008 Brixen, the put he holidayed several cases as a cardinal and as pope
2009 Mariazell, whose sanctuary he visited in 2007 as pope
2009 Introd within the Aosta Valley, the put he spent a pair of of his summer holidays in 2005, 2006 and 2009
2010 Romano Canavese, in Piedmont [262]
2010 Lisbon, honoring his seek the advice of with to town on 11–12 Might furthermore 2010 [263]
2010 Freising, the put he studied, became ordained a priest in 1951, the put he served from 1954–1957 lecturer on the Philosophical and Theological Faculty and worked from 1977 to 1982 as archbishop of Munich and Freising
2011 Natz-Schabs in South Tyrol; Benedict’s grandmother Maria Tauber Peintner and his mountainous-grandmother Elisabeth Maria Tauber each and every strategy from Natz-Schabs

The asteroid 8661 Ratzinger became named in his honor for the impartial he performed in supervising the gap of Vatican archives in 1998 to researchers investigating judicial errors against Galileo and other medieval scientists. The title became proposed by the asteroid’s first discoverers, LD Schmadel and F. Borngen at Tautenburg. [264]

Arms

Writings

Pope Benedict XVI wrote sixty six books, three encyclicals, and three apostolic exhortations.

Einblick auch

  • Georg Gänswein
  • Cardinals created by Benedict XVI
  • List of popes
  • Papal regalia and insignia – papal attire
  • Pope Benedict – checklist of alternative popes and antipopes the usage of the title Benedict
  • Three Secrets of Fátima – doc on the launch of the 1/three Secret of Fátima
  • Dehellenization

Extra studieren

Literature about him

  • Allen, John L.: Cardinal Ratzinger: the Vatican’s enforcer of the faith . – Unique York: Continuum, 2000
  • Benedetti, Amedeo: Il linguaggio di Benedetto XVI, al secolo Joseph Ratzinger . – Genova, Erga, 2012
  • Herrmann, Horst: Benedikt XVI. Der neue Papst aus Deutschland . – Berlin 2005
  • Nichols OP, Aidan: The Theology of Joseph Ratzinger: An Introductory Idea . – Edinburgh; T&T Clark, 1988
  • Pater Prior Maximilian Heim: Joseph Ratzinger — Kirchliche Existenz und existenzielle Theologie unter dem Anspruch von Lumen gentium (diss.).
  • Twomey, D. Vincent, SVD: Pope Benedict XVI: The Sense of correct and mistaken of Our Age (A Theological Portrait) . – San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2007
  • Wagner, Karl: Kardinal Ratzinger: der Erzbischof in München und Freising in Wort und Bild . – München: Pfeiffer, 1977

Biographies

  • Joseph Ratzinger (= Benedikt XVI. – autobiographical): Aus meinem Leben. (1927–1977) . Stuttgart 1998, ISBN three-453-16509-eight.
  • Alexander Kissler: Papst im Widerspruch: Benedikt XVI. und seine Kirche 2005–2013 . Pattloch 2013, ISBN 978-3629022158.
  • Campbell, Paul-Henri: Pope Benedikt XVI. Audio E book. Monarda Publishing Condominium, 2012, ISBN three-939513-Eighty-6.
  • Pursell, Brennan, Benedict of Bavaria: An Intimate Portrait of the Pope and His Role of origin (Circle Press, 2008). ISBN 1-933271-17-5.
  • Allen, John L. The Upward thrust of Benedict XVI: The Inner Story of How the Pope Became as soon as Elected and Where He Will Retract the Catholic Church . NY: Doubleday, 2005. ISBN zero-385-51320-eight.
  • Allen, John L. Pope Benedict XVI: A Biography of Joseph Ratzinger . Unique York: Continuum Worldwide Publishing Group, 2005. ISBN zero-8264-1786-eight. That is a reprint of Allen’s 2000 e book Cardinal Ratzinger: the Vatican’s Enforcer of the Faith .
  • Bardazzi, Marco. Within the Vineyard of the Lord: The Lifestyles, Faith, and Teachings of Joseph Ratzinger, Pope Benedict XVI . Unique York: Rizzoli Worldwide, 2005. ISBN zero-8478-2801-eight
  • Tobin, Greg. Holy Father: Pope Benedict XVI: Pontiff for a Unique Era . Kindly, 2005. ISBN 1-4027-3172-eight.
  • Weigel, George. God’s Choice: Pope Benedict XVI and the Map forward for the Catholic Church , Harper Collins, 2005. ISBN zero-06-621331-2.
  • Jeanne Perego. Joseph e Chico: Un gatto racconta la vita di Papa Benedetto XVI , EMP, 2007. ISBN 978-8825018820.

Documentaries

  • The Keys of the Kingdom, from John Paul II to Benedict XVI , produced by Vatican Television Heart, distributed by HDH Communications, 2006.

Encyclicals by Benedict XVI
Katholische kirchentitel
Vorangegangen durch
Julius Döpfner
Archbishop of Munich and Freising
1977–1982
gefolgt von
Friedrich Wetter
Vorangegangen durch
Franjo Šeper
Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
1981–2005
gefolgt von
William Levada
Vorangegangen durch
Bernardin Gantin
Dean of the Faculty of Cardinals
2002–2005
gefolgt von
Angelo Sodano
Vorangegangen durch
John Paul II
Papst
2005–2013
gefolgt von
Francis

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