Papst Benedikt XVI

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Papst Benedikt XVI (lateinisch: Benedictus XVI; Italienisch: Benedetto XVI; Deutsch: Benedikt XVI, geboren Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger, deutsche Aussprache: [joːzɛf alɔʏzi̯ʊs ʁatsɪŋɐ]; sechzehn April 1927 geboren) diente als Papst von 2005 , es sei denn zu seinem Rücktritt im Jahr 2013 Benedikts Wahl kam in der 2005 päpstlichen Konklave, die nach dem Tod von Papst Johannes Paul II. Seit seinem Rücktritt hält Benedict den Titel Papst Emeritus.

Als Priester 1951 in seinem Heimatland Bayern gegründet, etablierte sich Ratzinger 1958 als schrecklich populärer Universitäts-Theologe und wurde 1958 zum ordentlichen Professor ernannt. Nach einem längeren Beruf als Akademiker und Professor für Theologie an so viel Von deutschen Universitäten wurde er 1977 zum Erzbischof von München und Freising und Kardinal von Papst Paul VI. Ernannt, eine unregelmäßige Förderung für jemanden mit minimaler pastoraler Reise. Im Jahr 1981 wurde er zum Präfekten der Kongregation für die Lehre von der Religion ernannt, als einer von vielen größten Dikasterien der römischen Kurie. Ab 2002, es sei denn, seine Wahl als Papst, war er zusätzlich Dekan der Fakultät der Kardinäle. Früher als in Papst verwandeln, war er „eine notwendige Figur auf der Vatikanischen Bühne für ein Vierteljahrhundert“; Er hatte einen Affekt „2. zu keiner, wenn es um die Atmosphäre kirchliche Prioritäten und Richtungen“ ging, als einer der engsten Vertrauten von Johannes Paul II. [2]

Er verwendete in erster Linie ein liberalen Theologen zu sein, angenommen aber konservative Ansichten nach 1968 [3] Seine produktivste [4] Schriften verteidigen reife katholische Lehre und Werte. Für die Dauer seines Papsttums befürwortete Benedikt XVI. Eine Rückkehr zu den traditionellen christlichen Werten, um der erhöhten Säkularisierung vieler westlicher Länder entgegenzuwirken. Er sieht die Verweigerung der Zielwahrheit des Relativismus und die Verleugnung der moralischen Wahrheiten explizit als die zentrale Disziplin des einundzwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. Er lehrte die Wichtigkeit sowohl der katholischen Kirche als auch eine aus der erlösenden Liebe Gottes. [5] Papst Benedikt wieder zusätzlich eine Ausbreitung von Traditionen neben Seite, zu einem der alten Messe erhebend gut gefallen Dilemmas. [6] verstärkte er die Verbindung zwischen der katholischen Kirche und Kunst, förderte die Verwendung von Latein, [7] und wieder eingeführt reifen päpstlichen Gewänder, für das Motiv er als „der Papst der Ästhetik“ wird verwendet , um bekannt. [8] Er wurde als „die vorherrschende geistige Kraft in der Kirche“ seit Mitte der achtziger Jahre beschrieben. [9]

Am elf Februar 2013 kündigte Benedict seinen Rücktritt in einer lateinischen Rede vor den Kardinälen an und zitierte einen „Mangel an Energie von Geist und Körper“, der seinem entwickelten Alter zuzuschreiben war. Sein Rücktritt in effizienten geändert am 28. Februar 2013 Er ist der notwendige Papst im Jahr 1415, seit Papst Gregor XII zurückzutreten und die notwendigen so auf eigene Initiative seit Papst Coelestin V. in 1294. Als Papst emeritierter zu erreichen, behält Benedikt die Form seines Heiligkeit, und der Titel des Papstes, und setzt sich in der päpstlichen Farbe von weiß dekorieren. Er pflegte von Papst Francis am 13. März 2013 nachfolgen, und er zog in das neu renovierte Kloster Mater Ecclesiae für seinen Ruhestand am 2. Könnte gut sogar Messe 2013 zu seiner Pensionierung, Benedikt XVI hat gelegentlich öffentliche Auftritte neben Franziskus.

Frühe Existenz: 1927-1951

Die Lieferstelle von Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger in Marktl, Bayern

Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger wurde am sechzehn April, heiligen Samstag, 1927, in der Schulstraße elf geboren, um acht Uhr morgens im Haus seiner anderen Leute in Marktl, Bayern, Deutschland. Er hat den identischen Tag getauft. Er ist das 1/3 und jüngste Kind von Joseph Ratzinger, Sr., ein Polizeibeamter und Maria Ratzinger (geb. Peintner); Sein Groß-Onkel war früher der deutsche Baby-Kusser Georg Ratzinger. Die Familie seiner Mutter war in erster Linie aus Südtirol (jetzt in Italien). [10] Papst Benedikt älterer Bruder, Georg Ratzinger, ist ein katholischer Priester und der primitive Leiter des Chores Regensburger Domspatzen. Seine Schwester Maria Ratzinger, die niemals verheiratet war, schaffte den Kardinal Ratzinger Haushalt, außer ihrem Tod im Jahr 1991.

Im Alter von 5 Jahren war Ratzinger in einer Nachbarschaft von Kindern, die den Besuch des Kardinal Erzbischofs von München mit Pflanzen willkommen heißen. Von dem unverwechselbaren Gewand des Kardinals getroffen, kündigte er später an jenem Tag an, dass er ein Kardinal sein wollte. Er besuchte die Grundschule in Aschau am Inn, die im Jahr 2009 in seiner Ehre umbenannt verwendet wird [11]

Ratzingers Familie, vor allem sein Vater, hat die Nazis bitterlich verärgert, und die Opposition seines Vaters gegen den Nationalsozialismus führte zu Demotionen und Schikanen der Familie. [12] im Jahr 1941 seinen 14. Geburtstag Folgen, Ratzinger verwendet in die Hitler Prägende Jahre als eingezogen werden Mitgliedschaft verwendet , die gesetzlich vorgeschrieben werden für alle 14-12 Monate reifen deutschen Jungen nach März 1939 [13] -however verwendet werden Ein unenthusiastisches Mitglied, das sich weigerte, an Konferenzen teilzunehmen, im Wesentlichen ganz auf seinem Bruder basiert. [14] Im Jahr 1941, der als einer von Ratzingers Cousins, ein 14-12 Monaten reifer Junge mit Down – Syndrom, verwendet durch das NS – Regime weggenommen werden und irgendwann in der Traipse T4 Kampagne der NS – Eugenik ermordet. [15] Im Jahr 1943, während fern im Seminar verwendete er in das deutschen anti-Flugzeug Korps als Luftwaffenhelfer eingezogen werden. [14] Ratzinger dann in der deutschen Infanterie ausgebildet. [16] Da die Alliierten Eingang 1945 zog näher an seinen vorlegen, verließ er in Traunstein eine Hand , um seine Familie zu Hause verleihen , nachdem seine Einheit zu existieren aufgehört hatte zu, wahr , wie die amerikanischen Truppen einen Sitz im Ratzinger Haushalt etabliert. [17] Als deutscher Soldaten, benutzte er in einem Gefangenenlager Schlacht interniert werden, aber etwa einem Monat startete danach die von der Schlacht endete in Könnte gut sogar Messe 1945. [17]

Ratzinger und sein Bruder Georg traten St. Michael Seminary in Traunstein im November 1945 später auf dem Ducal Georgianum (Herzog Georgianum) der Ludwig-Maximilian – Universität in München studiert. Sie wurden beide in Freising am 29. Juni 1951 von Kardinal Michael von Faulhaber von München ordiniert. Ratzinger erinnerte sich: „In der Zwischenzeit hat der ältere Erzbischof mir die Finger gelegt, ein hübscher Hahn – vermutlich eine Lerche – flog aus dem Altar in der hohen Kathedrale und trickte eine ziemlich glückliche Melodie.“ [18]

Ratzingers 1953 Dissertation verwendet auf St. Augustine zu sein und verwendet das Volk und das Haus Gottes in Augustins Lehre von der Kirche betitelt werden. Seine Habilitation (die ihn für eine Professur salzig machte) war früher auf Bonaventura. Es wurde 1957 aufgeführt und er wurde 1958 in einen Professor der Freising Fakultät umgewandelt.

Pre-päpstlicher Beruf

Tutorial Beruf: 1951-1977

Anteil einer Serie auf der
Theologie von
Papst Benedikt XVI
Joseph Ratzinger.jpg
046CupolaSPietro.jpg Katholizismus-Portal

Ratzinger wurde 1959 in einen Professor an der Universität Bonn umgewandelt, sein Eröffnungsvortrag war früher auf „Der Gott der Religion und der Gott der Philosophie“. 1963 wechselte er zur Universität Münster. Für die Dauer dieser Zeit nahm er an dem Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzil (1962-fünfundsechzig) und diente als peritus (theologisches Buch) an Kardinal Frings von Köln. Er war zu irgendeinem Zeitpunkt in der Zeit des Rates als Reformator, die Zusammenarbeit mit Theologen lieben Hans Küng und Edward Schillebeeckx. Ratzinger verwandelte sich in einen Bewunderer von Karl Rahner, einem effektiv identifizierten akademischen Theologen der Nouvelle Théologie und einem Befürworter der Kirchenreform.

1966 wurde Ratzinger zu einem Lehrstuhl für dogmatische Theologie an der Universität Tübingen berufen, wo er früher ein Kollege von Hans Küng war. In seinem 1968 Buch Einführung in das Christentum, schrieb er , dass der Papst eine Verantwortung auf einer bestimmten Ebene der Kirche unterschiedliche Stimmen zu hören, bevor Sie einen Namen zu machen, und er verharmlost die zentrale Bedeutung des Papsttums. Für die Dauer dieser Zeit distanzierte er sich von der Atmosphäre von Tübingen und den marxistischen Neigungen der Studentenbewegung der Sechziger, die in den Jahren 1967 und 1968 in einer Reihe von Störungen und Unruhen kulminierten, Sogar fair 1968. Ratzinger kam mehr und mehr zu verdeckten Agenten diese und damit verbundenen Entwicklungen (gleichbedeutend mit der Verringerung schätzen für die Autorität unter seinen College-Studenten), wie mit einer Abkehr von reifen katholischen Lehren verbunden. [19] Kein Thema seines reformistischer Zick – Zack, seine Ansichten mehr und mehr kam mit den liberalen Tipps zu Unbilligkeit Währung Kreise in theologischen gewinnen. [20]

Einige Stimmen, darunter Küng, denke, dass dies ein Flip in Richtung des Konservatismus ist, während Ratzinger selbst in einem Interview von 1993 sagte: „Ich sehe keinen Verderben in meinen Ansichten als Theologe [über die Jahre]“. [21] Ratzinger blieb die Arbeit der Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzils, neben Seite Nostra aetate, der Doc auf schätzt verschiedener Religionen, die Ökumene und die Erklärung der moralischen Freiheit des Glaubens zu verteidigen. Später, als der Präfekt der Kongregation für die Lehre der Religion, Ratzinger am deutlichsten der katholischen Kirche Dilemma auf der anderen Religionen in 2000 doc Dominus Iesus buchstabierte die zusätzlich Gespräche in Bezug auf die römisch – katholische Weise in „ökumenischem Dialog“ zu erfassen . Für die Dauer seiner Zeit an der Universität Tübingen, gedruckt Ratzinger Artikel in der reformistischen theologischen Zeitschrift Concilium, obwohl er mehr und viel weniger reform Themen als andere Autoren der Zeitschrift entspricht Küng und Schillebeeckx ausgewählt mehr.

Im Jahr 1969 kehrte er nach Bayern, an der Universität Regensburg und Mitbegründer die theologische Zeitschrift Communio, mit Hans Usavon Balthasar, Henri de Lubac, Walter Kasper und anderen, 1972 Communio, jetzt in siebzehn Sprachen gedruckt, neben Seite Deutsch , Englisch und Spanisch, hat sich in eine beliebte Zeitschrift des modernen katholischen theologischen Denkens verwandelt. Bis zu seiner Wahl als Papst blieb er als einer der zahlreichsten Zeitschriften der produktivsten Mitwirkenden. 1976 beauftragte er, dass das Augsburger Bekenntnis vermutlich als katholische Behauptung des Glaubens anerkannt werde. [22][23] Mehr Benedikts primitiver College – Studenten in seine Vertrauten geändert, vor allem Christoph Schönborn und einer Verbreitung seiner primitiven College – Studenten für Diskussionen jeder so oft treffen. [24][25] Er diente als Vizepräsident der Universität Regensburg von 1976 bis 1977. [26]

Erzbischof von München und Freising: 1977-1982

Palais Holnstein in München, die Disziplin von Benedikt als Erzbischof von München und Freising

Am 24. März 1977 wurde Ratzinger zum Erzbischof von München und Freising ernannt. Er nahm als sein Bischofsmotto Cooperatores Veritatis (Mitarbeiter der Wahrheit) von Three John acht, eine Auflösung er in seinem autobiographischen Werk kommentiert, Meilensteine. Im Konsistorium des folgenden 27. Juni wurde er von Papst Paul VI. Zum Kardinal-Priester von Santa Maria Consolatrice al Tiburtino ernannt. Auf der Ebene des Konkurrenten 2005 wurde er als einer der handlichsten 14 verbleibenden Kardinäle angesehen, die von Paul VI. Ernannt wurden, und betrachtete eines der handlichsten drei davon unter dem Alter von 80 Jahren. Von diesen, handlich er und William Wakefield Baum nahm Phase in der Konklave. [28]

Präfekt der heiligen Kongregation für die Lehre von der Religion: 1981-2005

Kardinal Ratzinger in Rom, 12. Oktober 1988.

Am 25. November 1981 nannte Papst Johannes Paul II. Nach dem Ruhestand von Franjo Šeper Ratzinger als Präfekt der Heiligen Kongregation für die Lehre von der Religion, die zuvor als die „Heilige Kongregation des Heiligen Raumes der Arbeit“, die Geschichte, identifiziert wurde Römische Inquisition. Infolgedessen hat er seine Einreichung in München Anfang 1982 niedergeschlagen. Er wurde auf einer gewissen Ebene der Kardinals-Fakultät befördert, um sich 1993 in den Kardinal-Bischof von Velletri-Segni zu verwandeln und wurde 1998 zum Vize-Dekan der Schule gemacht und Dekan im Jahr 2002 korrigiert 12 Monate nach ihrer Gründung im Jahr 1990 Joseph Kardinal Ratzinger die Europäischen Akademie der Wissenschaften verbunden und Künste in Salzburg / Österreich 1991 [29][30]

Ratzinger verteidigte und bekräftigte die katholische Lehre, neben der Lehre über Angelegenheiten, die der Auslieferungskontrolle, der Homosexualität und dem interreligiösen Dialog gleichkämen. Der Theologe Leonardo Boff, um zu illustrieren, wurde früher suspendiert, während andere gleichbedeutend mit Matthew Fox wurden zensiert. Andere Störungen haben zusätzlich Verurteilungen oder Widersprüche von Rechten zur Erziehung ausgelöst: um zu illustrieren, einige posthume Schriften des Jesuitenpriesters Anthony de Mello waren Gegenstand einer Benachrichtigung. Ratzinger und die Gemeinde viele von ihnen in Betracht gezogen, insbesondere die späteren Arbeiten, als einen Teil des geistigen Indifferentismus (dh, verwendete Christus „ein Meister neben anderen“ zu sein). In explizit, von der Gemeinde im Jubiläum gedruckt Dominus Iesus, 12 Monate 2000 bestätigten viele nur in der nahen Vergangenheit „unbeliebt“ Tipps, neben Seite Dilemma der katholischen Kirche , dass „ Das Heil in keinem zeigen ist anders, denn es gibt nicht ist Sehr diese Form des Dinges als ein anderer Titel unter dem Himmel, der den Männern gegeben wird, in denen wir gerettet werden müssen. „ Der Doktor verärgerte viele protestantische Kirchengebäude, indem er behauptete, dass sie nicht mehr ohne Zweifel Kirchengebäude sind, sondern „kirchliche Gemeinschaften“. [31]

Ratzingers 2001 Brief De delictis gravioribus geklärt , die Vertraulichkeit innerhalb Kirche Untersuchungen, wie sie in dem 1962 doc Crimen Sollicitationis definiert, in Anschuldigungen gegen Priester von bestimmten Verbrechen gemacht, neben Seite sexuellen Missbrauch. Dies änderte sich zu einem Thema der Kontroverse zu irgendeinem Zeitpunkt in der Sex-Missbrauch Skandal. [32] Zwei Jahrzehnte lang war Ratzinger der Mann verantwortlich für die doc durchzusetzen. [33] Die Bischöfe einzubehalten betraf die Geheimhaltung handlichsten intern und tat nicht mehr preclude Untersuchung von zivilen Strafverfolgungsbehörden, den Brief verwendet auf das Gesamt wie die Förderung einer Vertuschung zu sehen sein. [34] Später, als Papst, benutzte er die Verschwörung in einer Klage beschuldigt werden , um die sexuelle Belästigung von drei Jungen in Texas zu Bettdecke auf, aber gesucht und erworben diplomatische Immunität vor strafrechtlicher Verantwortlichkeit. [35]

Am 12. März 1983 Ratzinger als Präfekt, teilte die Laien und die Geistlichkeit , den Erzbischof Pierre Martin Ngo Dinh Thuc Exkommunikation Tatstrafe für illegale Bischofsweihen mit aus dem apostolischen Auftrag entstanden war. Im Jahr 1997, als er sich in 70 veränderte, bat Ratzinger Papst Johannes Paul II. Um Erlaubnis, die Kongregation der Religionslehre zu verlassen und in einen Archivar im Vatikanischen Geheimarchiv und einen Bibliothekar in der Vatikanischen Bibliothek zu wechseln, wie es Papst Johannes Paul II Verweigerte seine Zustimmung. [36][37]

Papsttum: 2005-2013

Papst Benedikt XVI. Auf dem Petersplatz

Papst Benedikt XVI., St. Peter-Basilika, 15 Könnte auch mal fair 2005 sein

Papst Benedikt XVI. Rezitiert das wöchentliche Angelus-Gebet, während mit Blick auf den Petersplatz, Vatikanstadt

Wahl zum Papsttum

Benedikt XVI. Wurde im Alter von achtundsiebzig Jahren zum 265. Papst gewählt. Er ist die älteste Person, die Papst seit Papst Clemens XII. (1730-40) gewählt wurde. Er diente länger als Kardinal, bevor er sich in Papst verwandelte als jeder Papst seit Benedikt XIII. (1724-30). Benedikt und sein polnischer Vorgänger Johannes Paul II. Waren die notwendigen aufeinander folgenden nicht-italienischen Päpste seit den sieben aufeinanderfolgenden Franzosen des Avignon-Papsttums (1309 – siebzig). Der letzte Papst namens Benedict war früher Benedikt XV., Ein Italiener, der von 1914 bis 1922 regierte, irgendwann im Ersten Weltkrieg (1914-18).

Am 2. Januar 2005 zitierte Time Magazin ungenannte Quellen im Vatikan als Ankündigung , dass Ratzinger verwendet ein Eingangs Läufer sein pro Chance zu sein triumphierendes Johannes Paul II würde distanziert er sich zu unwohl sterben oder zu ändern als Papst , um fortzufahren. Nach dem Tod von Johannes Paul II, gab die Monetary Conditions die Möglichkeiten von Ratzinger Drehen in Papst als 7-1, die Führung Dilemma, aber in der Nähe seiner Konkurrenten auf dem liberalen Flügel der Kirche. Im April 2005, vor seiner Wahl zum Papst, benutzte er wie durch die Zeit eine von vielen 100 einflussreichsten andere Leute auf diesem Planeten betrachtet identifiziert werden. [38] Während des Präfekten der Kongregation für die Lehre der Religion, Ratzinger sagte die Regel würde er wirklich in der Nähe von Regensburg in der bayerischen Gemeinde Pentling in seine Heimat in den Ruhestand mag und selbst Bücher zu schreiben widmen.

Im Konklave, „war es früher, wenn nicht mehr Ratzinger, wer? Und als sie ihn umklammerten, fragte sich die Frage, warum nicht mehr Ratzinger?“ [39][40] Am 19. April 2005 nutzte er nach vier Stimmzettel am 2. Tag gewählt werden. [39] Kardinal Cormac Murphy-O’Connor beschrieb die Schlussabstimmung : „Es ist sehr ernst ist , wenn man nach dem Gegenteil zum Leiter eines passiert Ihre Stimme in der Urne zu halten und auch suchen Sie auf dem Endgericht von Michelangelo auf. Und ich halte den kardinalen Ratzinger, der auf dem Kamm seines Stuhls sitzt, [41] Ratzinger hatte gehofft , friedlich in den Ruhestand und sagte , dass „auf einer bestimmten Ebene, ich zu Gott gebetet‚Bitte nicht erreichen diese mir‘… Offenbar, diesmal nicht mehr Er hat auf mich hören.“ [42] Früher als sein erster Blick auf dem Balkon des Petersdom, benutzte er von Jorge Medina Estévez, Kardinal Protodeacon der katholischen Kirche bekannt gegeben. Kardinal Medina Estévez adressiert zuerst die große Menge , als „lieben (est) Brüder und Schwestern“ in Italienisch, Spanisch, Französisch, Deutsch und Englisch, mit jeder Sprachaufnahme prost vom internationalen Publikum, bevor mit dem reifen Habemus Papam Ankündigung in lateinischer Sprache fortgesetzt.

Auf dem Balkon, Benedikts erste Sätze in die Menge, in Italienisch gegeben , bevor er den reifen Urbi et Orbi Segen auf Latein gab, waren:

Preisreiche Brüder und Schwestern, nach dem Mammut Papst Johannes Paul II., Die Kardinäle umfassen mich, ein einfacher, bescheidener Arbeiter im Weingut des Herrn. Die unbestreitbare Tatsache, dass der Herr Arbeit kennt und selbst mit unzureichenden Instrumenten handeln kann, tröstet mich, und vor allem vertraue ich mich auf Ihre Gebete an. In dem Genuß des auferstandenen Herrn, der zuversichtlich ist, daß seine Unfehlbare eine Hand leihen, erlauben wir uns, vorwärts zu zirkulieren. Der Herr würde per Chance uns eine Hand geben, und Maria, seine Allerheiligste Mama, wäre zufällig auf unserer Facette. Vielen Dank. [43]

Am 24. April mochte er die päpstliche Einweihungsmesse am Petersplatz gut, irgendwann wurde er mit dem Pallium und dem Ring des Fischer angelegt. Auf 7 Könnte gut sogar fair, er nahm seine Domkirche, die Archbasilica von St. John Lateran.

Titelschrift

Ratzinger wählte den päpstlichen Titel Benedikt aus dem lateinischen Wort, welches Methodik „der Gesegnete“ zu Ehren von Papst Benedikt XV. Und Sankt Benedikt von Nursia. Papst Benedikt XV. War früher ein Päpst im Ersten Weltkrieg, zu irgendeinem Zeitpunkt, in dem er leidenschaftlich den Frieden zwischen den kriegsführenden Ländern verfolgte. St. Benedikt von Nursia verwendet , um die Gründer der Benediktiner – Klöster zu sein ( die meisten Klöster des Herzens Alter der Benediktiner waren behaupten) und den Autor der Regel des heiligen Benedikt, der fern ist vermutlich die einflussreichste Schrift über die Mönchs Existenz Westliches Christentum. Der Papst erklärte seine Titelauswahl zu einem gewissen Zeitpunkt in seinen erstmaligen Zuschauern am Petersplatz am 27. April 2005:

Voller Gefühle von Alarm und Danksagung, ich liebe es zu konzentrieren, warum ich den Titel Benedict ausgewählt habe. Vor allen Stücken betrachte ich Papst Benedikt XV. Den furchtlosen Propheten des Friedens, der die Kirche über turbulente Schlachtereignisse führte. In seinen Fußstapfen plante ich meinen Dienst im Dienst der Versöhnung und der Einheit zwischen den Völkern. Außerdem kaufe ich den heiligen Benedikt von Nursia, Co-Patron von Europa, dessen Existenz die christlichen Wurzeln Europas inspiriert. Ich quiz ihn, um uns die Hand zu leihen, um die Gesellschaft der Zentralität Christi in unserer christlichen Existenz zu verweigern: Könnte auch fairer Christus regelmäßig erste Handlung in unseren Tipps und Aktionen erwerben! [44]

Ton des Papsttums

Papst Benedikt XVI ist das erste Mal in einem Popemobil

Für die Dauer seiner Eröffnungsmesse wurde die veraltete, kundenspezifische Kardinale, die sich dem Papst unterwarf, durch zwölf andere Leute modelliert, neben Kardinälen, Klerus, Geistigen, Ehepaar und ihrem Kind und neu bestätigte andere Leute ihm. (Die Kardinäle hatten ihren Gehorsam bei seiner Wahl offiziell geschworen.) Er begann die Ausnutzung eines ursprünglich geplanten päpstlichen Automobils und gab bekannt, dass er dem Volk näher kommen wollte. Papst Benedikt beharrte die Tradition seines Vorgängers Johannes Paul II. Und taufte so viele Kleinkinder in der Sixtinischen Kapelle zu Beginn jeder 12 Monate in seiner pastoralen Charakteristik als Bischof von Rom.

Seligsprechungen

Auf 9 Könnte auch mal fair 2005, Benedikt XVI. Begann die Seligsprechung Weg für seinen Vorgänger, Papst Johannes Paul II. Insgesamt müssen fünf Jahre nach dem Tod einer Person vor der Beatifikationsroute eintreten. Doch bei einem Zuschauer mit Papst Benedikt, Camillo Ruini, Vikar Total der Diözese von Rom und die angenehme Haftung für die Förderung der Disziplin für die Heiligsprechung jeder Person, die in dieser Diözese stirbt, zitiert „Unterscheidungsmerkmale“, die behauptet, dass die Wartezeit Würde pro Chance verzichtet werden. Dies geschah vor, als Papst Paul VI. Auf die Fünf-12-Monats-Regel verzichtete und Bekannte für seine Vorgänger, Papst Pius XII. Und Papst Johannes XXIII. Benedikt XVI folgte diesem Präzedenzfall, als er auf die Fünf-12-Monate-Regel für Johannes Paul II. Verzichtete. [45] Die Wahl verwendete auf 13 angekündigt werden könnte durchaus auch Messe 2005, das Fest Unserer Lieben Frau von Fátima und der vierundzwanzigsten Jahrestag des auf Existenz des Johannes Paul II streben. [46] Johannes Paul II auf der Gesamt für Our Lady of Fátima gutgeschrieben ihn an diesem Tag zu sparen. Kardinal Ruini eröffnete die diözesanen Phase der Disziplin für die Seligsprechung in der Lateranbasilika am 28. Juni 2005 [47] aus

Die wichtigste Seligsprechung unter dem nagelneuen Papst war gut gefallen auf 14 Könnte auch mal fair 2005, von José Kardinal Saraiva Martins, Kardinal Präfekt der Kongregation für die Ursachen der Heiligen. Die neuen Blessed waren Mom Marianne Cope und Mom Ascensión Nicol Goñi. Kardinal Clemens August Graf von Galen wurde am 9. Oktober 2005 selig gesprochen. Mariano de la Mata wurde im November 2006 selig gesprochen und Rosa Eluvathingal war damals selig gesprochen. Drei Dezember dauert 12 Monate und Fr. Basil Moreau verwendet selig gesprochen werden September 2007. [48] Im Oktober 2008 folgende Seligsprechungen nahm Grundstück: Celestine der Mutter Gottes, Giuseppina Nicoli, Hendrina Stenmanns, Maria Rosa Flesch, Marta Anna Wiecka, Michael Sopocko, Petrus Kibe Kasui und 187 Begleiter, Susana Paz-Castillo Ramírez und Maria Isbael Salvat Romero.

Am 19. September 2010, in irgendeinem Stadium in seinem Fokus auf über mit dem Vereinigten Königreich, Benedict in meiner Idee verkündet die Seligsprechung von John Henry Newman. [49]

Im Gegensatz zu seinem Vorgänger delegierte Benedikt XVI. Die Beatifikation des liturgischen Dienstes an einen Kardinal. Am 29. September 2005 veröffentlichte die Kongregation für die Ursachen der Heiligen ein Kommuniqué, das behauptete, dass die Beatifikationen zufällig von einem Vertreter des Papstes, der dem Präfekten dieser Kongregation entspricht, gut gefallen werden. [50]

Kanonisierungen

Papst Benedikt auf die Heiligsprechung von Frei Galvão

Papst Benedikt XVI. Mochte seine ersten Kanonisierungen am 23. Oktober 2005 auf dem Petersplatz, als er Josef Bilczewski, Alberto Hurtado SJ, Zygmunt Gorazdowski, Gaetano Catanoso und Felice da Nicosia kanonisierte. Die Kanonisierungen waren die Phase einer Messe, die den Abschluss der Gesamtversammlung der Bischofssynode und des Jahres der Eucharistie markierte. [51] Papst Benedict XVI kanonisiert Bischof Rafael Guizar y Valencia, Mom Theodore Guerin, Filippo Smaldone und Rosa Venerini am 15. Oktober 2006 eingetragen .

Für die Länge seines Fokus auf über mit nach Brasilien im Jahr 2007, Papst Benedikt XVI. Vorsitz über die Heiligsprechung von Frei Galvão auf elf Könnte auch gut fair, während George Preca, Gründer der Malta-im Wesentlichen basiert völlig überwiegend MUSEUM, Szymon von Lipnica, Charles von Mount Argus und Marie-Eugénie de Jésus in einer Zeremonie am Vatikan am Drei Juni 2007. [52] Preca gehalten heilig gesprochen wurde , ist das notwendige Maltese saint seit der Umwandlung der Nation zum Christentum in 60 AD , als St. Paul die Bewohner umgewandelt. [53] Im Oktober 2008 folgende Heiligsprechungen nahm Grundstück: St. Alphonsa von Indien, [54] Gaetano Errico, Narcisa de Jesus Martillo Moran und Bernarda Bütler. Im April 2009 heulte er Arcangelo Tadini, Bernardo Tolomei, Nuno Álvares Pereira, Geltrude Comensoli und Caterina Volpicelli. [55] Im Oktober der identischen 12 Monate er Jeanne Jugan, Jozef Damian de Veuster, Zygmunt Szczęsny Feliński, Coll Guitart und Francisco Rafael Arnáiz Barón heilig gesprochen. [56][57]

Am 17. Oktober 2010 kenne Papst Benedikt André Bessette, einen französisch-kanadischen; Stanislaw Soltys, ein polnischer Priester aus dem fünfzehnten Jahrhundert; Italienische Nonnen Giulia Salzano und Camilla Battista da Varano; Spanische Nonne Candida Maria de Jesus Cipitria und Barriola und die notwendige australische Heilige, Mama Mary MacKillop. [58] Am 23. Oktober 2011 heilig gesprochen Papst Benedict XVI drei Heiligen: eine spanische Nonne Bonifacia Rodríguez Castro, Italienisch Erzbischof Guido Maria Conforti und italienischen Priester Luigi Guanella. [59] Im Dezember 2011 Papst Benedikt die Gültigkeit der Wunder formal bekannt wichtig , mit den Heiligsprechungen von Kateri Tekakwitha zu gehen, die über die notwendige Native American saint pro Chance vielleicht wären, Marianne Cope, eine Nonne arbeitet mit Aussätzigen in dem, was jetzt ist Der Orden von Hawaii, Giovanni Battista Piamarta, ein italienischer Priester, Jacques Berthieu, ein französischer Jesuitenpriester und afrikanischer Märtyrer, Carmen Salles y Barangueras, eine spanische Nonne und Begründer der Schwestern der Unbefleckten Empfehlung, Peter Calungsod, ein Laienkatechist und Märtyrer aus Die Philippinen und Anna Schäffer, deren Wunsch, ein Missionar zu sein, bei der Legende von ihrer Krankheit nicht erfüllt war. [60] Sie wurden am 21. Oktober 2012 heilig gesprochen [61]

Klinische Ärzte der Kirche

Am 7. Oktober 2012 nannte Papst Benedikt XVI. Hildegard von Bingen und Johannes von Avila Klinische Ärzte der Kirche, die 34. und 35. Leute, die in der Geschichte des Christentums anerkannt wurden. [62]

Curia-Reform

Papst Benedikt machte handlichste bescheidene Veränderungen an der Struktur der römischen Kurie. Im März 2006 stellte er den Päpstlichen Rat für die Seelsorge von Migranten und Wanderleuten und den Päpstlichen Rat für Gerechtigkeit und Frieden unter einen einzigen Präsidenten, Kardinal Renato Martino. Als Martino im Jahr 2009 in den Ruhestand ging, erhielten die Räte jeweils einen eigenen Vorsitz. Zusätzlich wurde im März 2006 der Päpstliche Rat für den interreligiösen Dialog mercurial in den Päpstlichen Rat für Tradition unter Kardinal Paul Poupard verschmolzen. Die Räte behaupteten ihre eigenen Beamten und Stabsangehörigen, während ihre Station und ihre Kompetenzen unverändert blieben, und in Could gut sogar fairen 2007 Interreligiöser Dialog verwendet werden, um wieder zu seiner separaten Station wieder alle mit einem eigenen Präsidenten wiederhergestellt werden. [63] Im Juni 2010 Benedikt schaffte den Päpstlichen Rat für die Förderung der jüngsten Evangelisation, zur Ernennung von Erzbischof Rino Fisichella seinen ersten Präsidenten. [64] Auf sechzehn Januar 2013 Papst Benedikt übertragen die Verantwortung für die Katechese von der Kongregation für den Klerus an den Päpstlichen Rat zur Förderung der jüngsten Evangelisation. [65]

Lehren

Als Papst, der als einer der führenden Rollen Benedict XVI verwendet , um in Bezug auf den katholischen Glauben und die Entscheidungen für die Probleme der anspruchsvollen und lebendigen Glauben, [66] ein Merkmal zu erziehen , dass er pro Chance würde effektiv als primitiver Kopf spielen Der Kongregation der Kirche für die Lehre von der Religion. Die vorherrschenden Facetten der Betonung seiner Lehren werden ausführlicher in der Theologie von Papst Benedikt XVI.

„Freundschaft mit Jesus Christus“

Am Ende seiner ersten Predigt als Papst bezeichnete Benedict sowohl Jesus Christus als auch Johannes Paul II. Zitiert Johannes Paul II. Die effektiv identifizierten Phrasen: „Machen Sie nicht mehr Angst, die großen Türen für Christus zu initiieren!“, Sagte Benedikt XVI.

Sind wir nicht mehr vermutlich alle Angst in irgendeiner Weise? Wenn wir Christus ganz in unser Leben eintreten lassen, wenn wir uns ganz zu Ihm entspringen, dann haben wir keine Angst mehr, dass er per Chance ein Ding von uns kaufen würde … Und schon immer wieder sagte der Papst: Nein! Wenn wir Christus in unser Leben hineinlassen, verlieren wir nichts, nichts, völlig nichts von dem, was Existenz frei macht, schön und Mammut. Nein! Feind in dieser Freundschaft können wir Schönheit und Befreiung auslösen … Wenn wir uns Ihm geben, so tauschen wir hundertfach. Sicher, entspringen, entspringen die Türen zu Christus – und auch du könntest die endgültige Existenz beschaffen. [67]

„Freundschaft mit Jesus Christus“ ist ein häufiges Thema seiner Predigt. [68][69] Er , dass auf dieser innige Freundschaft verwirrt, „alle Stücke hängt.“ [70] Er sagte dazu: „Wir sind als alle bekannten , uns mit Gott zu dieser Freundschaft stammen … mit ihm zu sprechen als zu einem Kumpel, der oberste Einer, der die Arena sowohl moralisch als auch chuffed fabrizieren kann … Das ist Alles, was wir zu erreichen haben, steht uns zur Verfügung … ist eine besonders wichtige Botschaft, es ist eine Botschaft, die hilft, zu erobern, was pro Chance zusätzlich als die Mammut-Versuchung unserer Zeit betrachtet wird: die Behauptung, dass nach dem Großen Bang, Gott zog sich aus der Geschichte zurück. „ [71] So wird in seinem Buch Jesus von Nazareth, seine vorderste Ursache früher „eine Hand fördern zu verleihen [im Leser] , um die Erweiterung einer lebendigen Beziehung“ mit Jesus Christus. [70]

Er nahm dieses Thema in seiner ersten Enzyklika Deus caritas est up. In seiner persönlichen Klärung und Zusammenfassung der Enzyklika sagte er: „Wenn die Freundschaft mit Gott für uns eine Sache immer wichtiger und entscheidender wird, dann können wir starten, um die zu lieben, die Gott liebt und die uns bedürfen, Gott braucht uns Um Kumpel zu sein, und wir würden auch so sein, wenn wir uns in der Nähe befinden. „ [72] So sagte er , dass das Gebet ist „dringend gewünscht … Es ist Zeit, die Bedeutung des Gebets in dem Gesicht des Aktivismus und der steigenden Säkularismus vieler Christen in der karitativen Arbeit beschäftigter zu bekräftigen.“

„Diktatur des Relativismus“

Fortsetzung was er sagte , in der Pre-Konklave Messe über das, was er auf dem Gesamt typischerweise als „zentrale Disziplin unseres Glaubens heute“, [73] am 6. Juni 2005 Papst Benedikt bekannt , sagte dazu:

This day, an extremely insidious obstacle to the duty of coaching is the large presence in our society and tradition of that relativism which, recognising nothing as definitive, leaves as the closing criterion handiest the self with its needs. And below the phantasm of freedom it becomes a penal complex for each one, for it separates other folks from each other, locking each person into his or her own ego. [74]

He said that „a dictatorship of relativism“ [75] used to be the core discipline going via the church and humanity. At the muse of this discipline, he said, is Kant’s „self-limitation of motive“. This, he said, is contradictory to the common acclamation of science whose excellence is essentially based completely totally on the facility of motive to clutch the fact. He said that this self-amputation of motive ends in pathologies of faith equivalent to terrorism and pathologies of science equivalent to ecological failures. [76] Benedict traced the failed revolutions and violent ideologies of the twentieth century to a conversion of partial facets of search for into absolute guides. He said „Absolutizing what is no longer absolute however relative is is named totalitarianism.“ [77]

In an handle to a conference of the Diocese of Rome held on the basilica of St. John Lateran 6 June 2005, Benedict remarked on the problems with same sex marriage and abortion:

The pretty about a kinds of the dissolution of matrimony nowadays, love free unions, trial marriages and going as a lot as pseudo-matrimonies by other folks of the identical sex, are pretty expressions of an anarchic freedom that wrongly passes for ultimate freedom of man…from here it becomes your total more particular how contrary it is miles to human love, to the profound vocation of man and girl, to systematically close their union to the gift of existence, and even worse to suppress or tamper with the existence that’s born. [78]

Christianity as faith essentially based completely totally on motive

In the discussion with secularism and rationalism, considered one of Benedict’s traditional tips would per chance additionally be demonstrate in his handle on the „Disaster of Tradition“ in the West, a day before Pope John Paul II died, when he referred to Christianity as the Religion of the Logos (the Greek for „word“, „motive“, „which methodology“, or „intelligence“). He said:

From the starting, Christianity has understood itself as the faith of the Logos , as the faith essentially based completely totally on motive… It has regularly defined males, all males with out distinction, as creatures and photos of God, proclaiming for them…the identical dignity. In this connection, the Enlightenment is of Christian foundation and it is miles no longer any accident that it used to be born precisely and solely in the realm of the Christian faith….It used to be and is the advantage of the Enlightenment to comprise all all over again proposed these usual values of Christianity and of having given lend a hand to motive its own train… This day, this comprise to be precisely [Christianity’s] philosophical energy, in to this level as the discipline is whether or no longer the arena comes from the irrational, and motive is no longer instead of a ’sub-product,‘ every so often even depraved of its constructing—or whether or no longer the arena comes from motive, and is, as a final consequence, its criterion and fair…In the so important dialogue between secularists and Catholics, we Christians comprise to be very careful to live faithful to this traditional line: to are living a faith that comes from the Logos , from inventive motive, and that, thanks to this, is additionally originate to all that’s in actuality rational. [79]

Benedict additionally emphasised that „Finest inventive motive, which in the crucified God is manifested as love, can with out a doubt existing us the manner.“ [79]

Encyclicals

Pope Benedict wrote three encyclicals: Deus caritas est (Latin for „God is Handle“), Spe Salvi („Saved by Hope“), and Caritas in veritate („Handle in Truth“). In his first encyclical, Deus caritas est , he said that a human being, created in the image of God who’s love, is willing to word love: to present himself to God and others (agape), by receiving and experiencing God’s love in contemplation. This existence of affection, essentially based completely totally on him, is the existence of the saints equivalent to Teresa of Calcutta and the Blessed Virgin Mary, and is the route Christians purchase after they obtain about that God loves them in Jesus Christ. [80]

The encyclical incorporates practically sixteen,000 phrases in forty two paragraphs. The foremost half is asserted to were written by Benedict in German, his first language, in the summertime of 2005; the 2nd half is derived from uncompleted writings left by his predecessor, Pope John Paul II. [81] The doc used to be signed by Pope Benedict on Christmas Day, 25 December 2005. [82] The encyclical used to be promulgated a month later in Latin and used to be translated into English, French, German, Italian, Polish, Portuguese and Spanish. It is the necessary encyclical to be printed since the Vatican decided to claim copyright in the pleasant writings of the pope. [83]

Benedict’s 2nd encyclical titled Spe Salvi („Saved by Hope“), in regards to the advantage of hope, used to be launched on 30 November 2007. [84][85] His 1/Three encyclical titled Caritas in veritate („Handle in Truth“ or „Charity in Truth“), used to be signed on 29 June 2009 (the Feast of Sts. Peter and Paul) and launched on 7 July 2009. [86] In it, the Pope persisted the Church’s teachings on social justice. He condemned the prevalent financial machine „where the pernicious results of sin are evident,“ and known as on other folks to rediscover ethics in enterprise and financial family. [86]

At the time of his resignation, Benedict had performed a draft of a fourth encyclical entitled Lumen fidei („The Gentle of Religion“), [87] intended to accompany his first two encyclicals to total a trilogy on the three theological virtues of faith, hope, and love. Benedict’s successor, Pope Francis, performed and printed Lumen Fidei in June 2013, four months after Benedict’s retirement and Francis‘ succession. Though the encyclical is officially the work of Pope Francis, paragraph 7 of the encyclical explicitly expresses Francis‘ debt to Benedict: „These issues on faith — in continuity with all that the Church’s magisterium has pronounced on this theological advantage — are intended to complement what Benedict XVI had written in his encyclical letters on charity and hope. He himself had practically performed a necessary draft of an encyclical on faith. For this I am deeply grateful to him, and as his brother in Christ I with out a doubt comprise taken up his magnificent work and added about a contributions of my very own.“ [88]

Put up-synodal apostolic exhortation

Sacramentum caritatis (The Sacrament of Charity), signed 22 February 2007, used to be launched in Latin, Italian, English, French, German, Portuguese, Spanish and Polish. It used to be made readily out there in diverse languages 13 March 2007 in Rome. The English version from Libera Editrice Vaticana is 158 pages. This apostolic exhortation „seeks to purchase in the richness and form of the reflections and ideas which emerged from the Standard Total Assembly of the Synod of Bishops“ which used to be held in 2006. [89]

Pope Benedict and Grasp of Pontifical Liturgical Celebrations Msgr. Guido Marini at a Mass in October 2008

Motu proprio on Tridentine Mass

A pre-1969 Mature Latin Mass altar with reredos.
The high altar of a church used to be on the total preceded by three steps, below that were said the Prayers on the Foot of the Altar. Side altars on the total had handiest one step.

On 7 July 2007, Benedict XVI issued the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum , declaring that upon „the question of the faithful“, birthday party of Mass essentially based completely totally on the Missal of 1962 (typically known as the Tridentine Mass), used to be to be more with out problems current. Stable teams who previously needed to petition their bishop to comprise a Tridentine Mass would per chance now merely question permission from their native priest. [90] Whereas Summorum Pontificum directs that pastors would per chance aloof present the Tridentine Mass upon the requests of the faithful, it additionally permits for any salubrious priest to present non-public celebrations of the Tridentine Mass, to which the faithful would per chance very effectively be admitted in the event that they wish. [91] For on a popular foundation scheduled public celebrations of the Tridentine Mass, the permission of the priest responsible of the church is required. [92]

In an accompanying letter, the Pope outlined his dilemma pertaining to questions in regards to the brand new pointers. [91] As there were fears that the circulate would entail a reversal of the Second Vatican Council, [93] Benedict emphasised that the Tridentine Mass would no longer detract from the Council, and that the Mass of Paul VI would aloof be the norm and priests were no longer current to refuse to deliver the Mass in that create. He identified that instruct of Tridentine Mass „used to be never juridically abrogated and, as a consequence, in theory, used to be regularly current.“ [91] The letter additionally decried „deformations of the liturgy … on legend of in many areas celebrations were no longer faithful to the prescriptions of the brand new Missal“ as the Second Vatican Council used to be wrongly seen „as authorising or even requiring creativity“, pointing out his own trip. [91]

The Pope considered that permitting the Tridentine Mass to those that question it used to be a technique to stop or heal schism, pointing out that, on events in history, „no longer enough used to be executed by the Church’s leaders to withhold or rep reconciliation and team spirit“ and that this „imposes an obligation on us nowadays: to fabricate each effort to enable for all these that in actuality desire team spirit to live in that team spirit or to attain it anew.“ [91] Many feel the decree geared in direction of ending the schism between the Holy Secret agent and traditionalist teams equivalent to the Society of Saint Pius X (SSPX). Cardinal Darío Castrillón Hoyos, the president of the Pontifical Commission established for the reason for facilitating full ecclesial communion of these associated with that Society, [94] said that the decree „opened the door for his or her return“. Bishop Bernard Fellay, edifying fashioned of the SSPX, expressed „deep gratitude to the Sovereign Pontiff for this mammoth spiritual motivate“. [90]

Unicity and salvific universality of the Catholic Church

Come the terminate of June 2007, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Religion issued a doc authorized by Benedict XVI „on legend of some modern theological interpretations of Vatican II’s ecumenical intent had been ‚pretend or ambiguous‘ and had triggered confusion and doubt.“ [95] The doc has been seen as restating „key sections of a 2000 textual snort material the pope wrote when he used to be prefect of the congregation, Dominus Iesus .“ [95]

Consumerism

Benedict XVI condemned excessive consumerism, especially amongst formative years. He said in December 2007 that „[A]dolescents, youths and even kids are easy victims of the corruption of affection, deceived by unscrupulous adults who, lying to themselves and to them, draw them into the listless-terminate streets of consumerism.“ [96] In June 2009, he blamed outsourcing for greater availability of user goods which lead to downsizing of social security systems. [97]

Ecumenical efforts

Speaking at his weekly viewers in St Peter’s Square on 7 June 2006, Pope Benedict asserted that Jesus himself had entrusted the leadership of the Church to his apostle Peter. „Peter’s accountability thus contains guaranteeing the communion with Christ,“ said Pope Benedict. „Let us pray in disclose that the primacy of Peter, entrusted to miserable human beings, would per chance regularly be exercised in this usual sense desired by the Lord, in disclose that this also can additionally be more and more recognised in its ultimate which methodology by brothers who are aloof no longer in communion with us.“

Other Christian denominations

Additionally in 2006, Benedict met Rowan Williams, Archbishop of Canterbury and spiritual head of the Anglican Communion. Of their Stylish Declaration, they highlighted the outdated 40 years of discussion between Catholics and Anglicans whereas additionally acknowledging „serious boundaries to our ecumenical progress“. [98] Benedict additionally acknowledged the Lutheran church, announcing that he has had chums in that denomination.

Judaism

When Benedict ascended to the Papacy his election used to be welcomed by the Anti-Defamation League who grand „his mammoth sensitivity to Jewish history and the Holocaust“. [99] However, his election obtained a more reserved response from the United Kingdom’s Chief Rabbi Jonathan Sacks, who hoped that Benedict would „proceed alongside the route of Pope John XXIII and Pope John Paul II in working to crimson meat up family with the Jewish other folks and the Convey of Israel.“ [100] The Foreign Minister of Israel additionally supplied more tentative reward, though the Minister believed that „this Pope, serious about his historical trip, would per chance be especially committed to an uncompromising fight in opposition to anti-Semitism.“ [100]

Critics comprise accused Benedict’s papacy of insensitivity in direction of Judaism. The 2 most well-liked circumstances were the enlargement of the utilization of the Tridentine Mass and the lifting of the excommunication on four bishops from the Society of St. Pius X (SSPX). In the Staunch Friday service, the mature Mass rubrics encompass a prayer that asks God to decide the veil so they [Jews] would per chance very effectively be delivered from their darkness . This prayer has historically been contentious in Judaic-Catholic family and so a lot of different teams saw the restoration of the Tridentine Mass as problematic. [101][102][103][104][105] Among these whose excommunications were lifted used to be Bishop Richard Williamson, an outspoken historical revisionist every so often interpreted as a Holocaust denier. [106][107][108][109] The lifting of his excommunication led critics to fee that the Pope used to be condoning his historical revisionist views. [110]

Islam

Pope Benedict’s family with Islam were strained at events. On 12 September 2006 he delivered a lecture which touched on Islam on the University of Regensburg in Germany. The Pope had previously served there as a professor of theology, and his lecture used to be entitled „Religion, Motive and the University—Memories and Reflections“. The lecture obtained grand consideration from political and spiritual authorities. Many Islamic politicians and spiritual leaders registered their drawl in opposition to what they labelled an insulting mischaracterisation of Islam, though his focal level used to be aimed in direction of the rationality of spiritual violence, and its enact on the faith. [111][112] Muslims were notably offended by this passage that the Pope quoted in his speech: „Show me true what Muhammad introduced that used to be new and there you might procure issues handiest tainted and inhuman, equivalent to his present to unfold by the sword the faith he preached.“ [112]

The passage first and foremost regarded in the Dialogue Held with a Sure Persian, the Worthwhile Mouterizes, in Anakara of Galatia [113][114] written in 1391 as an expression of the views of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Paleologus, considered one of many last Christian rulers before the Plunge of Constantinople to the Muslim Ottoman Empire, on such disorders as forced conversion, holy battle, and the connection between faith and motive. In step with the German textual snort material, the Pope’s usual observation used to be that the emperor „addresses his interlocutor in an astoundingly harsh—to us surprisingly harsh—manner“ (wendet er sich in erstaunlich schroffer, usüberraschend schroffer Construct). [115] Pope Benedict apologised for any offence he had triggered and made some extent of visiting Turkey, a predominantly Muslim nation, and praying in its Blue Mosque. Benedict planned on 5 March 2008, to meet with Muslim students and spiritual leaders autumn 2008 at a Catholic-Muslim seminar in Rome. [116] That meeting, the „First Meeting of the Catholic-Muslim Forum,“ used to be held from four–6 November 2008. [117] On 9 Could well even fair 2009, Benedict visited the King Hussein Mosque, Amman, Jordan where he used to be addressed by Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad. [118]

Tibetan Buddhism

The Dalai Lama congratulated Pope Benedict XVI upon his election, [119] and visited him in October 2006 in the Vatican City. In 2007 China used to be accused of the utilization of its political affect to stop a meeting between the Pope and the Dalai Lama. [120]

Indigenous American beliefs

Whereas visiting Brazil in Could well even fair 2007, „the pope sparked controversy by announcing that native populations had been ’silently longing‘ for the Christian faith delivered to South The United States by colonizers.“ [121] The Pope persisted, pointing out that „the proclamation of Jesus and of his Gospel did no longer at any level involve an alienation of the pre-Columbus cultures, nor used to be it the imposition of a international tradition.“ [121] The then President of Venezuela, Hugo Chávez demanded an apology, and an indigenous organisation in Ecuador issued a response which said that „representatives of the Catholic Church of these events, with honourable exceptions, were accomplices, deceivers and beneficiaries of considered one of presumably the most horrific genocides of all humanity.“ [121] Later, the Pope, speaking Italian, said at a weekly viewers that it used to be „no longer conceivable to neglect the suffering and the injustices inflicted by colonizers in opposition to the indigenous population, whose traditional human rights were on the total trampled.“ [122]

Hinduism

Whereas visiting the united states on 17 April 2008, Benedict met with Worldwide Society for Krishna Consciousness representative Radhika Ramana Dasa; [123] a grand Hindu scholar [124] and disciple of Hanumatpreshaka Swami. [125] On behalf of the Hindu American neighborhood, Radhika Ramana Dasa supplied a gift of an Om image to Benedict. [126][127]

Apostolic ministry

Pope Benedict XVI in a Mercedes-Benz popemobile in São Paulo, Brazil

As pontiff, Benedict XVI applied pretty about a Apostolic activities alongside side journeys internationally and in the Vatican.

Benedict travelled widely at some stage in the necessary three years of his papacy. As effectively as to his travels within Italy, Pope Benedict XVI made two visits to his fatherland, Germany, one for World Formative years Day and one other to focus on over with the cities of his childhood. He additionally visited Poland and Spain, where he used to be enthusiastically obtained. [128] His focus on over with to Turkey, an overwhelmingly Muslim nation, used to be before all the pieces overshadowed by the controversy a pair of lecture he had given at Regensburg. His focus on over with used to be met by nationalist and Islamic protesters [129] and used to be placed below unheard of security features. [130] However, the time out went forward and Benedict made a joint declaration with Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I in an strive and launch to heal the rift between the Catholic and Orthodox church buildings.

In 2007, Pope Benedict visited Brazil in allege to handle the Bishops‘ Convention there and canonize Friar Antônio Galvão, an 18th-century Franciscan. In June 2007, Benedict made a personal pilgrimage and pastoral focus on over with to Assisi, the birthplace of St. Francis. In September, Benedict undertook a Three-day focus on over with to Austria, [131] at some stage in which he joined Vienna’s Chief Rabbi, Paul Chaim Eisenberg, in a memorial to the sixty five,000 Viennese Jews who perished in Nazi death camps. [132] For the length of his shield in Austria, he additionally well-liked Mass on the Marian shrine Mariazell and visited Heiligenkreuz Abbey. [133]

Pope Benedict XVI celebrates his 81st birthday with US President George W. Bush and his partner, Laura. The White Home, Washington DC

In April 2008, Pope Benedict XVI made his first focus on over with to the united states since turning into pope. [134] He arrived in Washington, DC where he used to be formally obtained on the White Home and met privately with US President George W. Bush. [135] Whereas in Washington, the pope addressed representatives of US Catholic universities, met with leaders of different world religions, and well-liked Mass on the Washington Nationals‘ baseball stadium with 47,000 other folks. [136] The Pope additionally met privately with victims of sexual abuse by priests. The Pope travelled to Recent York where he addressed the United Nations Total Assembly. [137] Additionally whereas in Recent York, the Pope well-liked Mass at St. Patrick’s Cathedral, met with disabled kids and their households, and attended an event for Catholic formative years, where he addressed some 25,000 formative years in attendance. [138] On the closing day of the Pope’s focus on over with, he visited the World Change Heart net page and later well-liked Mass at Yankee Stadium. [139]

In July 2008, the Pope travelled to Australia to attend World Formative years Day 2008 in Sydney. On 19 July, in St. Mary’s Cathedral, he made an apology for child sex abuse perpetrated by the clergy in Australia. [140][141] On 13 September 2008, at an exterior Paris Mass attended by 250,000 other folks, Pope Benedict XVI condemned the common materialism – the arena’s love of power, possessions and money as a latest-day plague, evaluating it to paganism. [142][143] In 2009, he visited Africa (Cameroon and Angola) for the necessary time as pope. For the length of his focus on over with, he instructed that altering sexual habits used to be the reply to Africa’s AIDS crisis, and urged Catholics to attain out and convert believers in sorcery. He visited the Heart East (Jordan, Israel and Palestine) in Could well even fair 2009.

Pope Benedict’s foremost arena for pastoral job used to be the Vatican itself, his Christmas and Easter homilies and Urbi et Orbi are delivered from St Peter’s Basilica. The Vatican is additionally the supreme popular plot where Benedict XVI traveled via motor with out the protective bulletproof case popular to most popemobiles. No topic the more accurate atmosphere, Pope Benedict used to be victim to security dangers so a lot of events within Vatican City. On Wednesday, 6 June 2007 at some stage in his Total Viewers a person leapt all over a barrier, refrained from guards and practically mounted the Pope’s automobile, though he used to be stopped and Benedict gave the look to be unaware of the event. On Thursday, 24 December 2009, whereas Pope Benedict used to be continuing to the altar to comprise fun Christmas Eve Mass at St Peter’s Basilica, a lady later identified as 25-12 months-mature Susanna Maiolo, who holds Italian and Swiss citizenships, jumped the barrier and grabbed the Pope by his vestments and pulled him to the ground. The 82-12 months-mature fell however used to be assisted to his toes and he persisted to proceed in direction of the altar to comprise fun Mass. Roger Etchegaray, 87, the vice-dean of the Faculty of Cardinals, fell additionally and suffered a hip break. Italian police reported that the girl had previously tried to accost the Pope on the outdated Christmas Eve Mass, however used to be prevented from doing so. [144][145]

Pope Benedict XVI in Balzan, Malta

In his homily, Pope Benedict forgave Susanna Maiolo [146] and urged the arena to „fetch up“ from selfishness and petty affairs, and procure time for God and spiritual matters. [144]

Pope Benedict XVI in Zagreb, Croatia

Between 17 and 18 April, Pope Benedict made an Apostolic Trip to the Republic of Malta. Following conferences with diverse dignitaries on his first day on the island, 50,000 other folks gathered in a drizzle for Papal Mass on the granaries in Floriana. The Pope additionally met with the Maltese formative years on the Valletta Waterfront, where an estimated 10,000 formative years modified into as a lot as greet him. [147] For the length of his focus on over with the Pope used to be moved to tears whereas expressing his shame at cases of abuse on the island at some stage in a 20-minute meeting with victims. [148]

Sexual abuse in the Catholic Church

Sooner than 2001, the necessary accountability for investigating allegations of sexual abuse and disciplining perpetrators rested with the individual dioceses. In 2001, Ratzinger jubilant John Paul II to keep the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Religion responsible of all investigations and insurance policies surrounding sexual abuse in allege to fight such abuse more efficiently. [149][150] In step with John L. Allen, Jr., Ratzinger in the following years „got a familiarity with the contours of the discipline that with regards to no other figure in the Catholic Church can claim“ and „driven by that come across with what he would later focus on about with as ‚dust‘ in the Church, Ratzinger seems to comprise undergone one thing of a ‚conversion trip‘ at some level of 2003–04. From that level forward, he and his workers gave the impression driven by a convert’s zeal to dapper up the mess“. [151] In his characteristic as Head of the CDF, he „led important changes made in Church law: the inclusion in canon law of net offences in opposition to kids, the extension of child abuse offences to encompass the sexual abuse of all below 18, the case by case waiving of the statute of limitation and the institution of a fast-tune dismissal from the clerical order for offenders.“ [152] As the Head of the CDF, Ratzinger developed a standing for going via these cases. In step with Charles J. Scicluna, a primitive prosecutor going via sexual abuse cases, „Cardinal Ratzinger displayed mammoth wisdom and firmness in going via these cases, additionally demonstrating mammoth braveness in going via about a of presumably the most complicated and thorny cases, sine acceptione personarum (with out exceptions)“. [153][154]

One of the important cases Ratzinger pursued concerned Father Marcial Maciel Degollado, a Mexican priest and founder of the Legion of Christ, who had been accused typically of sexual abuse. Biographer Andrea Tornielli instructed that Cardinal Ratzinger had wished to purchase motion in opposition to Marcial Maciel Degollado, however that John Paul II and other high-ranking officials, alongside side so a lot of cardinals and notably the Pope’s influential secretary Stanisław Dziwisz, prevented him from doing so. [150][155] In step with Jason Berry, Angelo Sodano „pressured“ Cardinal Ratzinger, who used to be „operating on the concept that the expenses were no longer justified“, to terminate the court cases in opposition to Maciel in 1999 [156] When Maciel used to be honored by the Pope in 2004, new accusers came forward [156] and Cardinal Ratzinger „took it on himself to authorize an investigation of Maciel“ [150] After Ratzinger modified into pope he began court cases in opposition to Maciel and the Legion of Christ that forced Maciel out of active service in the Church. [149] On 1 Could well even fair 2010 the Vatican issued a press originate denouncing Maciel’s „very serious and objectively base acts“, that were „confirmed by incontrovertible testimonies“ and symbolize „ultimate crimes and manifest a existence with out scruples or official spiritual sentiment.“ Pope Benedict additionally said he would appoint a various rate to witness the Legionaries‘ constitution and originate an investigation into its lay affiliate Regnum Christi. [157] Cardinal Christoph Schönborn explained that Ratzinger „made fully particular efforts no longer to duvet issues up however to sort out and investigate them. This used to be no longer regularly met with approval in the Vatican“. [149][158] In step with Schönborn, Cardinal Ratzinger had pressed John Paul II to analyze Hans Hermann Groër, an Austrian cardinal and friend of John Paul accused of sexual abuse, main to Groër’s resignation. [155]

In March 2010, the Pope sent a Pastoral Letter to the Catholic Church in Eire addressing cases of sexual abuse by Catholic priests to minors, expressing sorrow, and promising changes in the manner accusations of abuse are handled. [159] Sufferer teams claim the letter did no longer give an explanation for if secular law enforcement has precedence over canon law confidentiality pertaining to within investigation of abuse allegations. [160][161][162][163] The Pope then promised to introduce measures that would per chance perchance ’safeguard formative years in the terminate‘ and ’ship to justice‘ priests who were liable for abuse. [148] In April, the Vatican issued pointers on how existing Church law comprise to be applied. The guiding theory dictates that „Civil law pertaining to reporting of crimes… would per chance aloof regularly be followed.“ [164] The guiding theory used to be intended to apply the norms established by US bishops, however it doesn’t require the reporting of „allegations“ or crimes where reporting is no longer required by law. [165]

Attire

Pope Benedict XVI sporting Cappello Romano at some stage in an originate-air Mass in 2007

Pope Benedict XVI in choir dress with the crimson summer papal mozzetta, embroidered crimson stole, and the crimson papal shoes.

Pope Benedict XVI re-presented so a lot of papal garments which had previously fallen into disuse. Pope Benedict XVI resumed the utilization of the mature crimson papal shoes, which had been broken-down since Roman events by popes however which had fallen into disuse at some stage in the preach of Pope John Paul II. Contrary to the preliminary speculation of the click that the shoes had been made by the Italian model home Prada, the Vatican announced that the shoes were supplied by the Pope’s personal shoemaker. [166]

On handiest one event, 21 December 2005, the Pope wore the camauro, the mature crimson papal hat on the total veteran in the winter. It had no longer been seen since the preach of Pope John XXIII (1958–1963). On 6 September 2006, the Pope began sporting the crimson cappello romano (on the total identified as a saturno), a huge-brimmed hat for out of doors instruct. Every so often broken-down by John Paul II, it used to be more widely veteran by his predecessors.

Charlotte Allen describes Benedict as „the pope of aesthetics“: „He has reminded a world that appears more and more gruesome and debased that there’s one of these thing as the pretty—whether or no longer it is embodied in a sonata or an altarpiece or an embroidered cope or the decrease of a cassock—and that earthly beauty finally communicates a beauty that’s past earthly issues.“ [8]

Successfully being

Sooner than his election as pope in 2005, Ratzinger had hoped to retire—on legend of age-connected effectively being problems, a prolonged-held desire to comprise free time to write, and the retirement age for bishops (seventy five)—and submitted his resignation as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Religion three events, however persisted at his submit in obedience to the needs of Pope John Paul II. In September 1991, Ratzinger suffered a hemorrhagic stroke, which a minute impaired his eyesight mercurial however he recovered fully. [167] This used to be never officially made public—the pleasant news used to be that Ratzinger had fallen and struck his head in opposition to a radiator—however used to be an originate secret identified to the conclave that elected him pope. [168]

Following his election in April 2005 there were so a lot of rumors in regards to the Pope’s effectively being, however none of them were confirmed. Early in his preach Benedict XVI predicted a brief reign, which ended in issues about his effectively being. [169] In Could well even fair 2005 the Vatican announced that he had suffered one other gentle stroke. French Cardinal Philippe Barbarin said that since the necessary stroke Ratzinger had been laid low with an age-connected coronary heart situation, for which he used to be on medications. In gradual November 2006 Vatican insiders told the international press that the Pope had had a routine examination of the coronary heart. [168] About a days later an unconfirmed rumor emerged that Pope Benedict had undergone an operation in preparation for an eventual bypass operation, however this rumor used to be handiest printed by a shrimp left-wing Italian newspaper and used to be never confirmed by any Vatican insider. [170]

On 17 July 2009, Benedict used to be hospitalized after falling and breaking his moral wrist whereas on vacation in the Alps; his accidents were reported to be minor. [171]

Following the announcement of his resignation, the Vatican printed that Pope Benedict had been fitted with a pacemaker whereas he used to be aloof a cardinal, before his election as pope in 2005. The battery in the pacemaker had been modified three months earlier, a routine intention, however that did no longer affect his decision. [172]

For the time being, Benedict has a pair of effectively being problems alongside side hypertension and reportedly has fallen up and doing bigger than as soon as, however the Vatican denies any explicit diseases. [173]

Resignation

Benedict XVI in a popemobile at his closing Wednesday Total Viewers in St. Peter’s Square on 27 February 2013

On eleven February 2013, the Vatican confirmed that Benedict XVI would resign the papacy on 28 February 2013, on legend of his developed age, [174] turning into the necessary pope to resign since Gregory XII in 1415. [175] At the age of eighty five years and 318 days on the efficient date of his retirement, he used to be the fourth-oldest person to withhold the office of pope. The circulate used to be considered surprising. [176] Nowa days, all popes comprise stayed in office unless death. Benedict is the necessary pope to comprise resigned with out external stress since Celestine V in 1294. [177][178]

In a press originate, Benedict cited his deteriorating energy and the bodily and psychological calls for of the papacy; [179] addressing his cardinals in Latin, Benedict gave a brief assertion asserting his resignation. He additionally declared that he would proceed to attend the church „via a existence dedicated to prayer“. [179]

In step with a press originate from the Vatican, the timing of the resignation used to be no longer triggered by any explicit illness however used to be to „shield away from that laborious bustle of Easter engagements“. [180] After two weeks of ceremonial farewells, the Pope left office on the appointed time and sede vacante used to be declared.

On the eve of the necessary anniversary of Benedict’s resignation he wrote to La Stampa to declare speculation he had been forced to step down. „There’s no longer the slightest doubt in regards to the validity of my resignation from the Petrine ministry,“ he wrote in a letter to the newspaper. „The supreme situation for the validity is the total freedom of the choice. Hypothesis about its invalidity is solely absurd,“ he wrote. [181]

Pope Emeritus

Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI in 2014

On the morning of 28 February 2013, Pope Benedict met with the total school of cardinals and in the early afternoon flew by helicopter to the papal summer discipline of Castel Gandolfo. He stayed there unless refurbishment used to be performed on his retirement home, the Mater Ecclesiae monastery in the Vatican Gardens near St Peter’s, previously home to 12 nuns, where he moved on 2 Could well even fair 2013. [182] To guard it there would per chance be a thick hedge and a fence. It has bigger than 2,000 square meters of backyard that fail to see the monastery and are adjoining to the recent „Pope’s backyard“. About a tens of meters away is the constructing of Vatican Radio. [183]

After his resignation, Benedict XVI retained his papal title in plot of reverting to his delivery title. [184] He persisted to keep on the white cassock however with out the pellegrina or the fascia. He ceased sporting crimson papal shoes. [185][186] Benedict returned his pleasant Fisherman’s Ring, which is regularly destroyed by Vatican officials on the death of a pope to stop paperwork being counterfeited.

In step with a Vatican spokesman, Benedict spent his first day as pope emeritus with Archbishop Georg Gänswein. [187] In the monastery, the pope emeritus is no longer going to are living a cloistered existence, however will look and write. [183] The pope emeritus later joined his successor so a lot of months after his election on the disclosing of a brand new statue of Saint Michael the Archangel. The inscription on the statue, essentially based completely totally on Cardinal Giovanni Lajolo, would comprise the coat of fingers of the two popes to symbolize the fact that statue used to be commissioned by Benedict XVI, and consecrated by Francis. [188]

Benedict XVI made his first public look after his resignation at St. Peter’s Basilica on 22 February 2014 to attend the necessary papal consistory of his successor Pope Francis. Benedict XVI, who entered the basilica via a discreet entrance, used to be seated in a row with so a lot of different cardinals. He doffed his zucchetto when Pope Francis came down the nave of St. Peter’s Basilica to greet him. [189] Furthermore, he made an look on the canonization mass of Pope John XXIII and Pope John Paul II, greeting the cardinals and Pope Francis.

In August 2014, Benedict XVI well-liked Mass on the Vatican and met with his primitive doctoral college students, an annual tradition he has stored since the 1970s. [190] He attended the beatification of Pope Paul VI in October 2014. [191] Weeks before this, he joined Pope Francis in Saint Peter’s Square for an viewers with grandparents to honor their significance in society. [192]

Benedict wrote the textual snort material of a speech, delivered by Archbishop Georg Gänswein, on the event of the dedication of the Aula Magna on the Pontifical Urbaniana University to the Pope Emeritus, „a gesture of gratitude for what he has executed for the Church as a conciliar educated, with his teaching as professor, as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Religion and, lastly, the Magisterium.“ The ceremony took plot on Tuesday, 21 October 2014 at some stage in the hole of the educational 12 months. [193]

Benedict XVI attended the consistory for label new cardinals in February 2015, greeting Pope Francis on the starting of the birthday party. [194] In 2015, Benedict XVI, who now prefers to be identified as „Father Benedict“, [195] spent the summer at Castel Gandolfo and took part in two public events. „Pope Francis invited Benedict XVI to instruct some time in Castel Gandolfo in the month of July and Benedict current“, Fr. Lombardi told journalists on 15 June. Benedict XVI remained there for two weeks. Whereas in Castel Gandolfo, Benedict XVI obtained two honorary doctorates, given to him by Kraków’s Cardinal Stanislaw Dziwisz, John Paul II’s longtime aide, from the Pontifical University of John Paul II and the Kraków Academy of Tune. [196] In his reception handle, Benedict XVI paid homage to his predecessor, John Paul II. [196]

The „Joseph Ratzinger–Benedict XVI Roman Library“ on the Pontifical Teutonic Faculty used to be announced in April 2015 and is scheduled to originate to students in November 2015. [197] The library half dedicated to his existence and thought is being catalogued. It involves books by or about him and his research, many donated by Benedict XVI himself. [198][199]

Benedict XVI, in August 2015, submitted a handwritten card to act as a testimony to the discipline off of canonization of Pope John Paul I. [200][201]

In March 2016 he gave an interview expressing his views on mercy and the fact the Pope Francis is in the tradition of the Church. [202] Additionally that month, a Vatican spokesman said that Benedict XVI used to be „slowly, serenely fading“ in his bodily effectively being, though his psychological capability remained „completely lucid“. [203]

The pope emeritus used to be honoured by the Roman Curia and Pope Francis in 2016 at a various viewers, honouring the sixty fifth anniversary of his ordination to the priesthood. [204] Benedict XVI, later that 12 months in November, did no longer attend the consistory for label new cardinals, though he did meet with them and Pope Francis at his discipline after the consistory had taken plot. [205]

28 June 2017, the Pope Emeritus obtained the newly created Cardinals in his chapel, „spoke with all of them in their native tongue“, and remarked that they were „from the four continents, the total church“. „The Lord wins in the terminate“, „thanks all“, he said, before giving them his blessings. [206]

Titles and kinds

The pleasant form of the primitive Pope in English is His Holiness Benedict XVI, Supreme Pontiff Emeritus or Pope Emeritus . [207] Much less formally he is regularly known as emeritus pope or Roman pontifex emeritus. [208]

As pope, his no longer regularly broken-down full title used to be:

His Holiness Benedict XVI, Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, Successor of the Prince of the Apostles, Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Sovereign of the Vatican City Convey, Servant of the servants of God. [209]

The most easy-identified title, that of „Pope“, doesn’t seem in the pleasant checklist of titles, however is over and over broken-down in the titles of paperwork, and appears, in abbreviated create, in their signatures as „PP.“ standing for “ Papa “ („Pope“). [210][211][212][213][214]

Sooner than 1 March 2006, the checklist of titles additionally broken-down to obtain that of a „Patriarch of the West“, which historically regarded in that checklist of titles before „Primate of Italy“. The title of „Patriarch of the West“ used to be first presented into the papal court in 1870 on the time of the First Vatican Council in the publication Annuario Pontificio and used to be eliminated in the 2006 version. Pope Benedict selected to purchase away the title at a time when discussions with the Orthodox church buildings comprise centered on the bid of papal primacy. [215]

Positions on moral and political disorders

Delivery control and HIV/AIDS

In 2005, the Pope listed so a lot of ways to fight the unfold of HIV, alongside side chastity, fidelity in marriage and anti-poverty efforts; he additionally rejected the utilization of condoms. [216] The alleged Vatican investigation of whether or no longer there are any cases when married folks would per chance instruct condoms to shield in opposition to the unfold of infections taken aback many Catholics in the wake of John Paul II’s consistent refusal to purchase into legend condom instruct essentially based completely totally on AIDS. [217] However, the Vatican has since said that no such trade in the Church’s teaching can happen. [218]TIME additionally reported in its version of 30 April 2006 that the Vatican’s dilemma stays what it regularly has been with Vatican officials „flatly brush apart[ing] reports that the Vatican is able to originate a doc that will condone any condom instruct.“ [218]

In March 2009, the Pope said:

I’d dispute that this discipline of AIDS can no longer be overcome merely with money, important though it is miles. If there isn’t very this form of thing as a human dimension, if Africans attain no longer lend a hand, the discipline can no longer be overcome by the distribution of prophylactics: quite the opposite, they amplify it. The answer have to comprise two facets: before all the pieces, bringing out the human dimension of sexuality, that’s to deliver a non secular and human renewal that would per chance perchance ship with it a brand new manner of behaving in direction of others, and secondly, ultimate friendship supplied above all to those which are suffering, a willingness to fabricate sacrifices and to practise self-denial, to be alongside the suffering. [219]

In November 2010, in a book-dimension interview, the Pope, the utilization of the instance of male prostitutes, said that the utilization of condoms, with the blueprint of reducing the possibility of HIV infection, would per chance very effectively be an indication that the prostitute is desiring to decrease the tainted linked with his or her base job. [220] In the identical interview, the Pope additionally reiterated the mature teaching of the Church that condoms are no longer seen as a „accurate or moral solution“ to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Extra, in December 2010, the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Religion explained that the Pope’s assertion did no longer constitute a legitimization of both contraception or prostitution, which stays gravely base. [220]

Homosexuality

For the length of his time as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Religion (CDF), Benedict XVI made so a lot of efforts to sort out the bid of homosexuality at some level of the Church and the wider world. In 1986 the CDF sent a letter to all bishops entitled: On the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons . The letter condemned a liberal interpretation of the earlier CDF doc Declaration on Sure Questions Touching on Sexual Ethics , which had ended in a „benign“ perspective „to the homosexual situation itself“. On the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons clarified that the Church’s dilemma on homosexuality used to be that „though the explicit inclination of the homosexual person is no longer a sin, it is a roughly sturdy tendency ordered in direction of an intrinsic moral tainted; and thus the inclination itself comprise to be seen as an aim disorder.“ [221] However the doc additionally condemned homophobic assaults and violence, pointing out that „It is unsuitable that homosexual folks were and are the thing of violent malice in speech or in motion. Such remedy deserves condemnation from the Church’s pastors wherever it occurs.“ [221]

In 1992, he all all over again authorized CDF paperwork declaring that homosexual „inclination itself comprise to be seen as an aim disorder“ and extended this theory to civil law. „Sexual orientation“, the doc said, used to be no longer a lot like flee or ethnicity, and it declared that it used to be „no longer unjust discrimination to purchase sexual orientation into legend.“ [222]

On 22 December 2008, the Pope gave an terminate of 12 months message to the Roman Curia by which he talked about gender and the important distinction between males and females. The Pope said that the church considered the dignity as central to human nature, and „asks that this allege of introduction be revered“. The church, he said, have to „shield man from self-destruction.“ He said „one thing love a human ecology“ used to be wished, adding: „Rain forests deserve certainly to be protected, however no much less so does man“. He attacked gender theories which he described as „man’s strive at self-emancipation from introduction and the Creator.“ [223][224][225]

LGBT teams equivalent to the Italian Arcigay and German LSVD comprise announced that they stumbled on the Pope’s comments homophobic. [226] Aurelio Mancuso, head of Arcigay, announcing „A divine programme for males and females is out of line with nature, where the roles are no longer so particular.“ [224] Canadian author Daniel Gawthrop, in a severe biography, The Trial of Pope Benedict , said that the Pope blamed homosexuality „for a bid the church had willingly enabled for plenty of of years.“ [227]

Father Federico Lombardi, a Vatican spokesman, claimed the Pope had no longer wished particularly to assault other folks with homosexual inclinations, and had no longer talked about gays or lesbians in his textual snort material. Father Lombardi insisted, then all all over again, that there had been an overreaction to the Pope’s remarks: „He used to be speaking more typically about gender theories which fail to see the traditional distinction in introduction between males and females and focal level instead on cultural conditioning.“ However, the remarks were interpreted as a name to keep mankind from homosexuals and transsexuals. [224]

Identical-sex marriage

For the length of a 2012 Christmas speech, [228] the Pope made remarks in regards to the demonstrate-day interpretation of the concept of „gender“. He said that „sex isn’t very any longer a given a part of nature, that man has to fair fetch and in my notion fabricate sense of: it is a social characteristic that we purchase for ourselves“, and „The phrases of the introduction legend: “female and male he created them” (Gen 1:27) no longer apply“. Though he did no longer mention the subject, his phrases were interpreted by news media as denunciations of same-sex marriage, [229] with some sources adding that Benedict would comprise known because it a possibility to world peace an a lot like abortion and euthanasia. [230] In March 2012, he said that heterosexual marriages comprise to be defended from „each conceivable misrepresentation of their ultimate nature“. [231]

Worldwide family

Migrants and refugees

In a message launched 14 November 2006, at some stage in a Vatican press conference for the 2007 annual observance of World Day for Migrants and Refugees, the Pope urged the ratification of international conventions and insurance policies that defend all migrants, alongside side refugees, exiles, evacuees and internally displaced folks. „The church encourages the ratification of the international ultimate instruments that fair to defend the rights of migrants, refugees and their households,“ the Pope said. „Considerable is already being executed for the combination of the households of immigrants, though grand aloof stays to be executed.“ [232]

Benedict with President of Russia Vladimir Putin on 13 March 2007

Pope Benedict additionally promoted diverse UN events, equivalent to World Refugee Day, on which he supplied up particular prayers for refugees and known as for the international neighborhood to attain more to accurate refugees‘ human rights. He on the total identified as on Catholic communities and organizations to present them concrete lend a hand. [233]

In 2015, it used to be reported that the Pope used to be „praying for migrants and refugees“ from Syria. [234]

China

In 2007, Benedict sent a letter at Easter to Catholics in China that also can comprise large-ranging implications for the church’s relationship with China’s leadership. The letter offers prolonged-requested guidance to Chinese bishops on reply to illicitly ordained bishops, as effectively as crimson meat up ties with the Patriotic Association and the Communist authorities. [235]

Korea

On 13 November 2006, Benedict said that the dispute over the North Korea nuclear weapons program comprise to be resolved via negotiations, in his first public observation on the protection bid, a news legend said. „The Holy Secret agent encourages bilateral or multilateral negotiations, jubilant that the solution comprise to be sought via quiet methodology and in appreciate for agreements taken by both facet to compose the denuclearisation of the Korean Peninsula.“ Benedict used to be talking to the brand new Eastern ambassador to the Vatican. [236]

Truthahn

In a 2004 Le Figaro interview, Ratzinger said that Turkey, which is demographically Muslim however governmentally secular by advantage of its order constitution, would per chance aloof survey its future in an affiliation of Muslim countries in plot of the European Union, which Ratzinger said has Christian roots. He said Turkey had regularly been „in permanent inequity to Europe and that linking it to Europe would per chance perchance be a mistake“. [237]

Later visiting the nation to „reiterate the team spirit between the cultures,“ it used to be reported that he made a counter-assertion backing Turkey’s drawl to affix the EU. Prime Minister of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, said that the Pope told him in their meeting that whereas the Vatican seeks to shield out of politics it needs Turkey’s membership in the EU. [238][239] However, the Stylish Declaration of Pope Benedict XVI and Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople implied that strengthen for Turkey’s membership in the European Union would per chance perchance be contingent on the institution of spiritual freedom in Turkey: [240] „In each step in direction of unification, minorities comprise to be protected, with their cultural traditions and the distinguishing facets of their faith.“ [241] The Declaration additionally reiterates Pope Benedict XVI’s name for Europe to shield up its Christian roots.

Israel

In Could well even fair 2009, he visited Israel. [242][243] This used to be the 1/Three Papal focus on over with to the Holy Land, the outdated ones being made by Pope Paul VI in 1964 and Pope John Paul II in 2000.

Vietnam

Pope Benedict XVI and Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng met on the Vatican on 25 January 2007 in a „new and important step in direction of establishing diplomatic ties“. [244] The Pope met with President Nguyễn Minh Triết on eleven December 2009. Vatican officials known as the meeting „a foremost stage in the progress of bilateral family with Vietnam.“ [245]

World financial system

In 2009, the Pope intervened in global financial and affairs of order with his 1/Three encyclical, Charity in Truth (Latin Caritas in veritate ), which would per chance additionally be considered on the Vatican’s net net page. [246] This doc discipline out the then reigning Pope’s dilemma on the case for worldwide redistribution of wealth in appreciable detail and goes on to focus on about the ambiance, migration, terrorism, sexual tourism, bioethics, power and population disorders. The Monetary Conditions reported that Benedict XVI’s advocacy for a fairer redistribution of wealth helped discipline the agenda for the 2009 July G8 summit. [247][248]

Additionally incorporated in Charity in Truth is advocacy for tax resolution:

One conceivable manner to constructing attend would per chance perchance be to apply effectively what is identified as fiscal subsidiarity, permitting voters to purchase allocate a section of the taxes they pay to the Convey. Supplied it doesn’t degenerate into the promotion of particular interests, this also can lend a hand to stimulate kinds of welfare team spirit from below, with apparent advantages in the order of team spirit for constructing as effectively. [Zitat wollte]

Nuclear power

Pope Benedict XVI known as for nuclear disarmament. At the identical time, he supported the quiet instruct of nuclear power as a tool for constructing and the fight in opposition to poverty. In his message for the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Worldwide Atomic Energy Company, he confirmed: „The Holy Secret agent, completely approving of the IAEA’s fair, has been a member from the organisation’s foundation and continues to strengthen its job.“ [249]

Pursuits

Pope Benedict XVI on the Synod of Bishops 2008 in Rome, Italy

Benedict is identified to be deeply attracted to classical tune, [250] and is an performed pianist. [251] The Pontiff Emeritus‘ common composer is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, of whose tune the Pope said, „His tune is by no methodology true leisure; it incorporates the total tragedy of human existence.“ [252] Benedict additionally said that Mozart’s tune affected him very a lot as a young man and „deeply penetrated his soul“. [252] Benedict’s common works of tune are Mozart’s Clarinet Concerto and Clarinet Quintet. [253] He recorded an album of modern classical tune by which he sings and recites prayers to the Blessed Virgin Mary. [254] The album used to be discipline for originate on 30 November 2009.

He’s additionally identified to be inviting about cats. [250] As Cardinal Ratzinger he used to be identified (essentially based completely totally on primitive neighbours) to learn about after stray cats in his neighbourhood. A book known as Joseph and Chico: A Cat Recounts the Life of Pope Benedict XVI used to be printed in 2007 which told the tale of the Pope’s existence from the pussycat Chico’s perspective. This tale used to be inspired by an orange tabby Pentling cat, which belonged to the family next door. [255] For the length of his time out to Australia for World Formative years Day in 2008 the media reported that festival organizers lent the Pope a gray cat known as Bella [256] in allege to withhold him firm at some stage in his shield. [257]

Social networking

In December 2012, the Vatican announced that Pope Benedict XVI had joined social networking net snort material Twitter, below the handle @Pontifex. [258] His first tweet used to be made on 12 December and used to be „Pricey chums, I am happy to fetch in touch with you via Twitter. Thanks in your high-quality response. I bless all of you from my coronary heart.“ [259] On 28 February 2013, the day he retired, the tweets were deleted, and @Pontifex read „Sede Vacante“. [260] Pope Francis finally took control of the @Pontifex legend upon his election. [261]

Honours and awards

As pope, Benedict used to be Enormous Grasp of the following orders: Supreme Dispute of Christ, Dispute of the Golden Spur, Dispute of Pius IX, Equestrian Dispute of St. Gregory the Colossal and the Dispute of St. Sylvester.

1977 Enormous Defective of the National Dispute of Advantage of the Republic of Ecuador
1977 Knight Enormous Defective of the Bavarian Dispute of Advantage
1985 Enormous Advantage Defective with Considerable person and Sash of the Federal Republic of Germany
1985 Bayerische Verfassungsmedaille (Bavarian Constitution Medal) in Gold
1989 Ordine della Minerva on the University of Chieti
1989 Augustin Bea Prize (Rome)
1989 Karl-Valentin-Orden (Munich)
1991 Leopold Kunschak Prize (Vienna)
1991 Georg von Hertling Medal of Kartellverband katholischer deutscher Studentenvereine
1992 Enormous Ornament of Honour in Gold with Sash for Companies to the Republic of Austria
1992 Literature Prize Capri S. Michele in Anacapri
1992 Premio Internazionale di Cultura Cattolica, Bassano del Grappa
1993 literary prize Premio Letterario Basilicata per la Letteratura e Poesia religiosa Spirituale in Potenza (Italy)
1996 Knight of the Bavarian Maximilian Dispute for Science and Art work
1998 Commander of the Legion of Honour ( Légion d’honneur ) (France)
1999 Bailiff Enormous Defective of Honour and Devotion of the Sovereign Militia Dispute of Malta
2002 Liberal Trieste
2004 Literature Prize Capri S. Michele in Anacapri
Honorary doctorates
1984 University of St. Thomas (St. Paul, Minnesota, USA; Honorary Doctor of Human Letters)
1986 Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru (Pontifical Catholic University of Peru)
1987 Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt
1988 Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski (Catholic University of Lublin, Poland)
1998 University of Navarra (Pamplona, Spain)
1999 Libera Università Maria SS Assunta Roma (Maria SS Assunta Free University, Rome) (honorary stage in law)
2000 Uniwersytet Wrocławski (University of Wroclaw, Poland; Honorary Doctor of Theology)
2005 Universatea Babes-Bolyai in Cluj-Napoca (Babeș-Bolyai University)
Honorary citizenships
1987 Pentling, near Regensburg, plot of his foremost German discipline
1997 Marktl, his birthplace
2005 Traunstein, plot of the school and the look seminar he attended
2006 Altötting, in Bavaria
2006 Regensburg, worked as a full, later as a visiting, professor
2006 Aschau am Inn, began school and obtained Mass for the necessary time
2007 Tittmoning, where he spent phase of his childhood
2008 Brixen, where he holidayed so a lot of events as a cardinal and as pope
2009 Mariazell, whose sanctuary he visited in 2007 as pope
2009 Introd in the Aosta Valley, where he spent about a of his summer holidays in 2005, 2006 and 2009
2010 Romano Canavese, in Piedmont [262]
2010 Lisbon, honoring his focus on over with to the city on eleven–12 Could well even fair 2010 [263]
2010 Freising, where he studied, used to be ordained a priest in 1951, where he served from 1954–1957 lecturer on the Philosophical and Theological Faculty and worked from 1977 to 1982 as archbishop of Munich and Freising
2011 Natz-Schabs in South Tyrol; Benedict’s grandmother Maria Tauber Peintner and his mammoth-grandmother Elisabeth Maria Tauber both come from Natz-Schabs

The asteroid 8661 Ratzinger used to be named in his honor for the characteristic he played in supervising the hole of Vatican archives in 1998 to researchers investigating judicial errors in opposition to Galileo and other medieval scientists. The title used to be proposed by the asteroid’s first discoverers, LD Schmadel and F. Borngen at Tautenburg. [264]

Hands

Writings

Pope Benedict XVI wrote 66 books, three encyclicals, and three apostolic exhortations.

Secret agent additionally

  • Georg Gänswein
  • Cardinals created by Benedict XVI
  • List of popes
  • Papal regalia and insignia – papal apparel
  • Pope Benedict – checklist of different popes and antipopes the utilization of the title Benedict
  • Three Secrets of Fátima – doc on the originate of the 1/Three Secret of Fátima
  • Dehellenization

Extra studieren

Literature about him

  • Allen, John L.: Cardinal Ratzinger: the Vatican’s enforcer of the faith . – Recent York: Continuum, 2000
  • Benedetti, Amedeo: Il linguaggio di Benedetto XVI, al secolo Joseph Ratzinger . – Genova, Erga, 2012
  • Herrmann, Horst: Benedikt XVI. Der neue Papst aus Deutschland . – Berlin 2005
  • Nichols OP, Aidan: The Theology of Joseph Ratzinger: An Introductory Seek for . – Edinburgh; T&T Clark, 1988
  • Pater Prior Maximilian Heim: Joseph Ratzinger — Kirchliche Existenz und existenzielle Theologie unter dem Anspruch von Lumen gentium (diss.).
  • Twomey, D. Vincent, SVD: Pope Benedict XVI: The Judgment of right and wrong of Our Age (A Theological Portrait) . – San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2007
  • Wagner, Karl: Kardinal Ratzinger: der Erzbischof in München und Freising in Wort und Bild . – München: Pfeiffer, 1977

Biographies

  • Joseph Ratzinger (= Benedikt XVI. – autobiographical): Aus meinem Leben. (1927–1977) . Stuttgart 1998, ISBN Three-453-16509-eight.
  • Alexander Kissler: Papst im Widerspruch: Benedikt XVI. und seine Kirche 2005–2013 . Pattloch 2013, ISBN 978-3629022158.
  • Campbell, Paul-Henri: Pope Benedikt XVI. Audio Guide. Monarda Publishing Home, 2012, ISBN Three-939513-Eighty-6.
  • Pursell, Brennan, Benedict of Bavaria: An Intimate Portrait of the Pope and His Fatherland (Circle Press, 2008). ISBN 1-933271-17-5.
  • Allen, John L. The Rise of Benedict XVI: The Internal Narrative of How the Pope Become as soon as Elected and The keep He Will Resolve on the Catholic Church . NY: Doubleday, 2005. ISBN 0-385-51320-eight.
  • Allen, John L. Pope Benedict XVI: A Biography of Joseph Ratzinger . Recent York: Continuum Worldwide Publishing Group, 2005. ISBN 0-8264-1786-eight. Right here’s a reprint of Allen’s 2000 book Cardinal Ratzinger: the Vatican’s Enforcer of the Religion .
  • Bardazzi, Marco. In the Vineyard of the Lord: The Life, Religion, and Teachings of Joseph Ratzinger, Pope Benedict XVI . Recent York: Rizzoli Worldwide, 2005. ISBN 0-8478-2801-eight
  • Tobin, Greg. Holy Father: Pope Benedict XVI: Pontiff for a Recent Generation . Worthwhile, 2005. ISBN 1-4027-3172-eight.
  • Weigel, George. God’s Different: Pope Benedict XVI and the Future of the Catholic Church , Harper Collins, 2005. ISBN 0-06-621331-2.
  • Jeanne Perego. Joseph e Chico: Un gatto racconta la vita di Papa Benedetto XVI , EMP, 2007. ISBN 978-8825018820.

Documentaries

  • The Keys of the Kingdom, from John Paul II to Benedict XVI , produced by Vatican Television Heart, dispensed by HDH Communications, 2006.

Encyclicals by Benedict XVI
Katholische kirchentitel
Vorangegangen durch
Julius Döpfner
Archbishop of Munich and Freising
1977–1982
gefolgt von
Friedrich Wetter
Vorangegangen durch
Franjo Šeper
Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Religion
1981–2005
gefolgt von
William Levada
Vorangegangen durch
Bernardin Gantin
Dean of the Faculty of Cardinals
2002–2005
gefolgt von
Angelo Sodano
Vorangegangen durch
John Paul II
Papst
2005–2013
gefolgt von
Francis

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